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T1 Heavy Tank

T1 Heavy Tank

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T1_hvy (Stock)

AnnoT1_hvy.png
Totals
435000 Price
600 Hit Points
57.4 / 57.88 kgWeight
Crew
  1. Commander
Armor
83/44/41Hull Armor(front/sides/rear, mm)
102/83/83Turret Armor(front/sides/rear, mm)
Maneuver
700 h.p.Engine Power
35.4 km/hSpeed Limit
20 deg/secTraverse Speed
Firepower
110 Standard Shell Damage
101 mmStandard Shell Penetration
4.3 Time for Complete Loading
31 deg/secTurret Traverse Speed
Communication
320 mView Range
395 mSignal Range
T1 Heavy Tank
V
T1 Heavy Tank
435000
Development of the tank started in the spring of 1940. In September 1940 and December 1941, prototypes underwent trials. The tank was never mass-produced. Later, it became a prototype for the M6.

Compared to its Soviet counterpart, the KV-1, most players do not consider the T1 a powerful heavy tank for its tier. Although it lacks the KV-1's extended armament options, the upgraded M1A1 cannon sports great penetration and rate of fire, taking the T1 Heavy's firepower up to par with the KV-1's 85mm. In addition, the T1 has a very powerful engine available as an upgrade, making the T1 a more mobile tank than its Soviet and British counterparts. It has good frontal armor and very thick turret armor. However, its long sides are very thinly protected, so keep your flanks hidden and expose only your front armor and turret to minimize incoming damage. Keep in mind that the T1 is best played as a medium tank with the speed of a heavy tank, and not as a real heavy like the KV-1. Alternatively, you can hold chokepoints and use your fast firing cannon to deter others from attacking.

Do be aware that the T1 Heavy Tank requires more skill to play than the KV-1. That said, in the hands of a good player adept at both medium tank and Hulldown (American Heavy) tactics, they will find this vehicle to be a very good tank. With the combination of good armor, good maneuverability, high DPM and high weight this tank will prove superior to tanks at its own tier and will prove a match to even higher tiered opponents.

T1 Heavy Tank

Stock

Level Turret Weight (t) Turret Armor (front/sides/rear, mm) Turret Traverse Speed (deg/s) View Range (m)
turret IV T1D5 7020 102/83/83 31 320
Level Gun Weight (t) Average Penetration (mm) Rate of Fire Dispersion at 100 m Aiming Time
gun V 76 mm Gun M7 L/50 1450 101/157/38 110/110/175 13.95 0.46 2.3
Level Engine Weight (t) Engine Power (h.p.) Chance of Fire on Impact
engine V Wright G200 M795C9GC1 612 700 20
Level Suspension Weight (t) Load Limit Traverse Speed (deg/s)
chassis IV HVSS T31 10600 57.88 20
Level Radio Weight (t) Signal Range (m)
radio VI SCR 508 0 395

T1E2 Heavy

Attack

Level Turret Weight (t) Turret Armor (front/sides/rear, mm) Turret Traverse Speed (deg/s) View Range (m)
turret V T1D6 8020 102/83/83 30 330
Level Gun Weight (t) Average Penetration (mm) Rate of Fire Dispersion at 100 m Aiming Time
gun VI 76 mm Gun M1A1 1567 128/177/38 115/115/185 16.67 0.43 2.3
Level Engine Weight (t) Engine Power (h.p.) Chance of Fire on Impact
engine VI Wright G2X M781C9GC1 612 825 20
Level Suspension Weight (t) Load Limit Traverse Speed (deg/s)
chassis V HVSS T35 10600 61.5 25
Level Radio Weight (t) Signal Range (m)
radio VI SCR 508 0 395

T1E5

Speed

Level Turret Weight (t) Turret Armor (front/sides/rear, mm) Turret Traverse Speed (deg/s) View Range (m)
turret V T1D6 8020 102/83/83 30 330
Level Gun Weight (t) Average Penetration (mm) Rate of Fire Dispersion at 100 m Aiming Time
gun VI 76 mm Gun M1A1 1567 128/177/38 115/115/185 16.67 0.43 2.3
Level Engine Weight (t) Engine Power (h.p.) Chance of Fire on Impact
engine VII Wright G200 M781C9GC1 612 960 20
Level Suspension Weight (t) Load Limit Traverse Speed (deg/s)
chassis V HVSS T35 10600 61.5 25
Level Radio Weight (t) Signal Range (m)
radio VII SCR 538 0 480

Compatible Equipment

Large Spall Liner
Camouflage Net
Coated Optics
Enhanced Gun Laying Drive
Enhanced Vertical Coil Springs 3 Class
Improved Ventilation Class 3
Medium-Caliber Tank Gun Rammer
Binocular Telescope
Toolbox
"Wet" Ammo Rack Class 1

Compatible Consumables

Automatic Fire Extinguisher
Case of Cola
100-octane Gasoline
105-octane Gasoline
Manual Fire Extinguisher
Large First Aid Kit
Large Repair Kit
Small First Aid Kit
Small Repair Kit

Player Opinion

Pros and Cons

Pros:


  • Has the best overall mobility of all non-premium tier 5 heavies (with the top engine)
  • Good rate of fire combined with decent penetration
  • Frontal armor is quite reliable when top tier
  • Decent speed, high weight, and frontal armor for its tier make it one of the best ramming tanks in the game
  • Seems to have a very generous MM, often finding itself tier top


Cons:


  • Weak side and rear armor
  • Accuracy is lacking
  • Large silhouette
  • Painfully sluggish when stock
  • Low alpha on the gun compared to other tier 5 heavies is a serious problem in tier 7 matches


Performance

Armed with the same 76mm gun as the M4 Sherman, this tank does not give the typical impression of a heavy tank. Its much stronger front and turret armor improves its survivability over the M4 considerably. Keeping the front facing your target is crucial, as the side armor is nearly identical to the M4's and presents a much larger silhouette. Also, be aware that the 105mm howitzer, commonly mounted by tanks at this level, will penetrate you on the side and rear for full damage using HE shells—more incentive to show the front. This tank shines when it's in the top tier. Otherwise, it usually moves into a supporting role, making use of its speed to fire while ducking in and out of cover. This tank is very poor without its top engine, since it relies on maneuverability to stay alive. It's never speedy but can maneuver well. It's heavier and faster than most other tier 5 tanks so it gives you the option to ram if necessary. Also, unlike most tanks, the T1 has two Gunners. This allows you to take more Gunner-specific skills and perks if you decide to keep the tank and train your crew up.

A good player familiar to medium tank tactics will find this to be an amazing tank—having a reasonable powerful gun (that unfortunately has sub-par accuracy) and being a fairly fast tank (utilizing its huge top engine) that has powerful armor for its tier, only bested by the KV-1. Additionally, the turret armor is thicker than the KV-1's stock turret, so keep this in mind. Top tier, this tank will easily and frequently get Steel Walls and High Calibers, and when played correctly, Top Gun and Sniper are common achievements.

Alternatively, with its relatively high speed and armor the T1 makes an excellent choice for ramming, especially with the large spall liner upgrade.


Early Research

  • Unfortunately there are no modules that carry over from the M3 Lee.
  • Stock, the suspension's weight capacity is maxed out, so you have to upgrade the suspension first.
  • Next you may want to unlock the first engine, or else focus on the next step.
  • Unlock the turret and then the gun so you can equip the much improved 76 mm M1A1.
  • Finish up with the SCR 538 radio and the second engine, both of which are used on the M6.


Historical Info

T1E2 8.December.1941.
With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, interest was revived in the concept of a heavy tank and preliminary studies of such a vehicle began at Aberdeen in September 1939. On 20 May 1940, the Chief of Infantry recommended that a requirement be established for a heavy tank and that a program be undertaken to develop designs for such a vehicle with combat weights of 50 and 80 tons. In response to this request, item 15842 of the Ordnance Committee Minutes (OCM), dated 22 May 1940, recommended that a development project be initiated for a tank weighing about 50 tons.

The initial concept described in OCM 15842 was a multi-turreted vehicle. Two primary turrets, each armed with a low velocity T6 75mm gun, were to be equipped with power traverse to cover approximately 250 degrees. Two secondary turrets, also equipped with power traverse, were intended to cover a full 360 degrees. One secondary turret was to be armed with a 37mm gun and a .30 caliber machine gun in a combination mount while the other was to be fitted with a 20mm gun and a .30 caliber machine gun, also in a combination mount. In addition, the tank was to carry four .30 caliber machine guns in ball mounts. Two of these were to be located in diagonal plates at the rear corners of the hull and the remaining two were to be fitted in the slightly sloping front plate. The latter were to have electric firing mechanisms to permit their use by the driver as fixed sponson guns.

History

T1E1 19.september 1941.

The project was approved on 11 July 1940 and the proposed vehicle was designated as the heavy tank T1. However, the military characteristics soon were revised and a full scale wooden mock-up was constructed incorporating the changes. The multiple turrets were eliminated and the main armament was mounted in a single large turret with a 69 inch diameter ring. The new arrangement was outlined in OCM 16200, dated 24 October 1940, and the changes were approved on 22 November. The new single turret was armed with a modified version of the 3 inch T9 antiaircraft gun in a combination mount with a 37mm gun V15E1. The turret was traversed 360 degrees either manually or by the electric system developed by Westinghouse. At this time, power elevation also was specified for the combination mount with a gyro- stabilizer. Later, the power elevation feature was dropped, but the elevation stabilizer was retained. The turret crew arrangement differed from that in later medium and heavy tanks with the tank commander located on the left side of the 3 inch gun. A.30 caliber machine gun in a cupola identical to that on the medium tank M3 was provided for the tank commander. The gunner's station in the right front of the turret was equipped with a periscopic sight and a direct sight telescope. A .50 caliber machine gun in a rotor mount was located in the right rear of the turret roof. Operated by the loader, its elevation ranged from -5 to + 60 degrees for use against both air and ground targets. A pistol port with a protect scope was installed in the rear wall of the turret.

Crew

At the time that OCM 16200 was published, a crew of six or seven men was proposed for the new heavy tank. Later, this was specified as six, when the tank was standardized. They consisted of the commander, gunner, loader, ammunition passer, driver, and assistant driver. The latter three rode in the hull with the driver in the left front. Two .30 caliber machine guns were mounted in the front armor, one on each side of the hull. Fixed in traverse, these weapons had an elevation range of 15 degrees and were fired electrically by the driver. A door in the front plate could be opened to give the driver a wide field of view and a smaller direct vision port was located just below the door. A protect scope in the driver's door provided vision when the tank was under fire. Two .50 caliber machine guns in a flexible mount were installed in the right front hull for use by the assistant driver (bow gunner). These guns could be traversed 15 degrees to the left or right of center and elevated from -10 to +60 degrees. In the original design, the two .50 caliber machine guns were installed in the mount, one above the other with the top gun to the left of the lower weapon. Metal sights or rods were attached to the guns to permit aiming through the coupled indirect sighting device. Two escape hatches were provided, one in each top front corner of the hull. An additional escape hatch was located in the hull floor. Two pistol ports with protector scopes were installed with one in the front side wall of each sponson.

Engine & Transmission

T1-technical drawings
Because of the many problems expected during the development of the new vehicle, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was requested to form a committee to advise the Ordnance Department on the program. One major problem was the design of a satisfactory power train. The expected weight of 50 tons required an engine of approximately 1000 hp for adequate mobility. The SAE committee considered several engines and the chairman of the engine subcommittee recommended the Wright Cyclone air- cooled radial as the best choice. Other engines considered were the General Motors diesel and the Allison V-1710 aircraft power plant. However, the latter was eliminated because all manufacturing facilities were fully occupied meeting the requirements of the aircraft production program. Also, it was decided not to use the General Motors diesel at that time and the Wright G-200 was selected as the first choice power plant. Developing 960 gross horsepower at 2300 rpm, it weighed 1350 pounds dry. Unfortunately, no automotive transmission was available for such a high power level and the development of a suitable transmission became a critical part of the project.

Early in the program, the SAE subcommittee on transmissions considered several proposals. These included torque converters designed by the Schneider Hydraulic Corporation, the Twin Disc Clutch Company, and Borg Warner Corporation as well as a new Hydromantic transmission proposed by the Olds Mobile Division of General Motors. Designs for gas- electric drives also were submitted by the Electromotive Division of General Motors and the General Electric Company. However, the gas-electric drive was considered too heavy and it was estimated at that time to weigh about five tons more than the other systems. A conventional synchromesh transmission also was discussed, but it was not considered feasible in such a heavy tank and it would require the development of a clutch since none was available for this power level. After review of the various proposals, the committee voted to select the Hydromantic transmission, but also to study the torque converters as a possible alternate system.
In August 1940, a contract had been signed with the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the design and construction of a pilot heavy tank to be followed by the manufacture of 50 production models. As mentioned earlier, the new vehicle had been designated as the heavy tank T1 by OCM 15946 on II July 1940. This was the designation assigned to the vehicle for which the Hydromantic transmission was proposed. However, further studies by the General Electric Company indicated that a gas-electric drive could be developed that would not increase the weight of the tank by more than two tons. Since such a drive would have numerous advantages, it was recommended by OCM 16477 that an electric drive and steering mechanism be developed for installation in the pilot T1. When this equipment was installed, the vehicle was to be redesignated as the heavy tank T1E1.

T1E1 back
Work continued on a crash basis at the Baldwin Locomotive Works to complete the design of the new tank and to construct the pilot model. It was expected that the Hydramatic transmission would be available for installation in May 1941. However, numerous problems delayed delivery and in August, the pilot tank was assembled using the Twin Disc torque converter Model T-16001. OCM 16655 on 21 April 1941, had designated the vehicle with this transmission as the heavy tank T1E2. Preliminary testing of the pilot TIE2 began during August at Baldwin parallel with the preparation of plans for production. Modifications were required to minimize vapor lock and to improve the transmission and shifting mechanism. A particularly serious problem was the overheating and rapid wear of the steering brakes which subsequently required the development of a completely new brake lining. On the day following the attack at Pearl Harbor, the T1E2 pilot heavy tank was officially presented to the Ordnance Department at the Baldwin Locomotive Works with a demonstration alongside a production medium tank M3. Although it made an impressive show, many problems still required solutions, even though the new war situation called for production at the earliest possible date. For example, during the demonstration, the hydraulic system failed cutting off pressure for the power steering and gear shifting mechanisms. Thus for the last three miles of the run, only mechanical steering was available and it was not possible to get the transmission out of gear. Also, the pinion shaft in the traversing mechanism had been twisted off while rotating the turret.

Fallowing the demonstration, the tank was torn down and numerous changes were made as a result of the initial tests. The four torque converter radiators were combined into two units and the two engine oil cooling radiators were combined into a single unit greatly simplifying the plumbing in the engine compartment. The exhaust manifold was moved from the front to the rear of the Wright G-200 engine and mufflers of a new type were installed. These were located inside the engine compartment and exhausted into the slip stream of the engine cooling fan. The rear end of the hull was rebuilt to simulate the proposed production configuration.

Armament

T1E1 90mm
The T1 was designed parallel with the medium tank M3 and shared many early design features with that vehicle such as the fixed machine guns for use by the driver and the cupola with a .30 caliber machine gun for the lank commander. Troop testing, combined with the British battle experience, resulted in the elimination or modification of many of these items and these changes were reflected in the late production M3 and early M4 medium tanks. Similar changes were applied to the production version of the heavy tank. It was recommended that both of the driver's fixed machine guns be deleted. However, the gun on the right side was retained and only the left machine gun was removed and its port covered by a steel plug. Although it was considered desirable to redesign the front hull eliminating the door in front of the driver, such a change was rejected because of delays in production and the modifications were limited to reducing the size of the door and the installation of periscopes for the driver and bow gunner. At first, each had one, but the final design provided two periscopes for the driver and one for the bow gunner. In addition, the driver had a direct vision port in-stalled in the smaller front hull door. At this time, the bow mount for the twin .50 caliber machine guns was redesigned so that the two guns were side by side on the same level.

The production turret replaced the cupola for the tank commander with a flat double door hatch as on the medium tank M4. The rotating ring on this hatch was fitted with either a .30 caliber or .50 caliber antiaircraft machine gun, depending upon the Armored Force policy at the time. The rotor mounted .50 caliber machine gun in the rear of the pilot tank turret was eliminated. The pistol port in the rear turret wall was retained, but it was shifted toward the right side.

Models

With the United States at war, the pressure increased to get the new heavy lank into production. Following the precedent set with the medium tank M3, it was decided to release the T1E2 for production prior to the completion of the test program. Such an early release was expected to produce tanks undesirable features. Any necessary changes resulting from the test program could be introduced later without severely disrupting the production program. Such a policy was already producing M3 medium tanks to meet the critical needs of the British in addition to the American training program. To meet the expected quantity requirements, it was considered necessary to use welded as well as cast hulls and the combination of the General Motors diesel engine and the Hydramatic transmission was proposed as an alternate power train.
On 14February 1942, OCM 17812 sorted out the designations for the different versions of the heavy tank. These were as follow:

  1. Heavy tank T1 - Cast hull. Wright G-200 engine. Hydramatic transmission
  2. Heavy tank T1KI - Cast hull, Wright G-200 engine, GE electric drive
  3. Heavy tank T1E2 - Cast hull, Wright G-200 engine, Twin Disc torque converter
  4. Heavy tank T1IE3 - Welded hull, Wright G-200 engine, Twin Disc torque converter
  5. Heavy tank T1E4 - Welded hull, four CM 6-71 diesel engines, two Hydramatic tank transmissions
At this time, production orders had been placed for the T1E2 and the T1E3 and on 13 April 1942, Army recommended standardization of the two vehicles as the heavy tanks M6 and M6 A1 respectively. Standardization was approved on 26 May. Although funds had been allocated for 1084 heavy tanks, changing requirements of the Armored Force reduced the number authorized for procurement to 115.
T1E1 at Aberdeen
With the reduced requirements for heavy tanks and the standardization of the M6 and M6 A1, the development projects for the T1and T1E4 were cancelled on 11 June 1942. Thus the special tank Hydramatic transmission developed by General Motors for the T1 was never installed in a tank, although it was delivered to Aberdeen Proving Ground. Also, the heavy tank T1E4 with the four diesel engines did not progress beyond the design stage. However, the electric drive T1E1 pilot showed exceptionally good performance in tests at the Erie plant of the General Electric Company and General Barnes informally ordered 27 additional electric propulsion and control systems to be completed by the end of 1942. Standardization of the T1E1 as the heavy tank M6 A2 was proposed, but not approved, although the designation frequently appeared on drawings and in correspondence concerning the vehicle. Army on 10 August 1942 recommended that the T1E1 be classified as a limited procurement type to permit the manufacture of 115 tanks for extended service tests. Since the Services of Supply had directed in June that the procurement of heavy tanks be increased from 115 to 230 with the additional tanks allocated to International Aid, the end result was that all of the T1E1 tanks would be for use by the U.S. Army and the M6 and M6 A1 tanks would go to the Lend-Lease program. This was confirmed in a September report which showed that the heavy tank production would consist of 50 M6 s and 65 M6 A1ls for Britain and 115 T1E1s for the United States. Production was expected to start in October or November 1942. This schedule was not met and the opinion of the user was shifting against the heavy tank. The Commanding General of (he Armored Force, General Jacob Devers, wrote on 7 December 1942 to the Commanding General of the Army Ground Forces stating that "Due to its tremendous weight and limited tactical use, there is no requirement in the Armored Force for the heavy tank. The increase in the power of the armament of the heavy- tank does not compensate for the heavier armor". Recommending the cancellation of the heavy lank program, General Devers reflected the opinion of the Armored Force that it was preferable to use the available shipping for two 30-ton medium tanks rather than one 60-ton heavy tank. In view of the attitude of the using arm, the Services of Supply approved the termination of heavy tank production. The economical end point was determined to be at 40 vehicles.

The first production M6 was accepted at the Baldwin Locomotive Works in December 1942. A production pilot M6 A1 was completed by the Fisher Body Division of General Motors, but the production contract at Fisher was cancelled. All of the 40 production tanks were assembled at Baldwin. They consisted of 8 M6 s, 12 M6 Als, and 20 T1E 1s with the last tank, a T1E1, being delivered in February 1944.

With the T1E1I and T1E2 pilots and Fisher's production pilot M6A1, the overall total for the series was 43 tanks.


Historical Gallery

Sources and External Links

USA
Light Tanks IT1 Cunningham IIM2 Light Tank IIT1E6-X IIT1E6-X1 IIT2 Light Tank IIT7 Combat Car IIIM22 Locust IIIM3 Stuart IIIMTLS-1G14 IVM5 Stuart VM24 Chaffee VIT21 VIT37 VIIM41 Walker Bulldog VIIT71 VIIIM41B Brazilian Bulldog VIIIT49
Medium Tanks IIT2 Medium Tank IIIM2 Medium Tank IVM3 Lee VM4A2E4 Sherman VM4A2E4 Ripper VM4 Sherman VM7 VRam II VIM4A3E8 Sherman VISherman Fury VIM4A3E2 Sherman Jumbo VIIT20 VIIT23E3 VIIIM26 Pershing VIIIT26E4 Super Pershing VIIIT26E4 Freedom VIIIT69 VIIIT95E2 IXM46 Patton IXT54E1 XM48A1 Patton
Heavy Tanks VT14 VT1 Heavy Tank VIM6 VIIT29 VIIIM6A2E1 VIIIT32 VIIIT34 IXM103 XT110E5 XT57 Heavy Tank
Tank Destroyers IIT18 IIIT82 IVM8A1 IVT40 VM10 Wolverine VT67 VIM18 Hellcat VIM36 Jackson VIIT25/2 VIIT25 AT VIIIT28 VIIIT28 Prototype IXT30 IXT95 XT110E3 XT110E4
Self-Propelled Artillery IIT57 IIIM7 Priest IIISexton I IVM37 VM41 VIM44 VIIM12 VIIIM40/M43 IXM53/M55 XT92
Heavy Tanks
USA VT14 VT1 Heavy Tank VIM6 VIIT29 VIIIM6A2E1 VIIIT32 VIIIT34 IXM103 XT110E5 XT57 Heavy Tank
UK VChurchill I VExcelsior VIChurchill VII VITOG II* VIIBlack Prince VIIICaernarvon IXConqueror XFV215b
Germany IVPz.Kpfw. B2 740 (f) IVDurchbruchswagen 2 VVK 30.01 (H) VIVK 36.01 (H) VIIPz.Kpfw. VI Tiger VIIPz.Kpfw. VI Tiger (P) VIIILöwe VIIIPz.Kpfw. Tiger II VIIIVK 45.02 (P) Ausf. A IXE-75 IXVK 45.02 (P) Ausf. B XE-100 XMaus
France IVB1 VBDR G1 B VIARL 44 VIIAMX M4 mle. 45 VIIIAMX 50 100 VIIIFCM 50 t VIIIFCM 50 t Liberté IXAMX 50 120 XAMX 50 B
USSR VChurchill III VKV-1S VKV-220 VKV-1 VIKV-2 VIKV-85 VIT-150 VIIIS VIIKV-3 VIIIIS-3 VIIIIS-6 VIIIKV-5 VIIIKV-4 IXIS-8 IXST-I XIS-4 XIS-7
China VIIIS-2 VIII110 VIII112 IXWZ-111 model 1-4 X113
Japan
Czechoslovakia
Sweden