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Upon reaching Account Level 7, a player is granted the ability to assign a Commander to each ship. Commanders can learn a variety of useful skills that enhance the performance of the ship. Sometimes these are straight buffs to the vital statistics of a ship — such as faster turret traverse speed or more hit points — while others confer entirely new abilities or tools for the player to use in combat. A highly skilled commander is among the most powerful upgrades a ship can obtain in World of Warships, working together with installed upgrades, chosen consumables, and equipped signals to enhance the performance and capabilities of the ship.

The Commander recruitment window.


Once Account Level 7 is unlocked, a ship may not be queued for battle without a commander assigned to it. Thereafter, a commander can be recruited for a ship without one.[1] There are several options offered when recruiting a new commander:

  • Send to a Senior Commanders Course for 25 Doubloons to earn three (3) skill points.
  • Send to the Naval Academy for 7,500 Credits to earn one (1) skill point.
  • Be content with Basic Training at no cost for zero (0) skill points.
  • Clicking the small, circular icon below the commander's name (middle left) in the recruitment window generates a new name and portrait for the commander. This can be repeated until the player is satisfied with the combination.

Recruiting is not the only way to obtain commanders. Certain missions, campaigns, and Scenarios award commanders. Experienced commanders can be bought in the Arsenal for Coal or Doubloons, or from the Premium Shop for real money. Awarded ships and some purchased ship bundles include experienced commanders.

When a ship is purchased from the tech tree, it can be with a newly recruited commander or without one. The latter option is useful when you intend to assign a commander from Reserve or another ship.

A Commander can be Dismissed at any time. This will free up a reserve slot. A dismissed commander can be recalled within 60 minutes. After that the dismissal is permanent.

Managing Commanders

Clicking on the Commander portrait in the top right of the Port screen brings up the Commander interface. This screen allows players to manage their Commanders in various ways.

The Commander Interface: current skills (Red 1), redistribution (Orange 2), reserve Commanders (Green 3), current Commander (Blue 4), and Elite Commander experience (Purple 5).

The currently selected Commander is shown in the top right; the Commander skills trained are shown in the center. The drop down menu next to the Commander's name allows players to assign the Commander to another ship, send him to Reserve, dismiss him, or Go to their Personal File. Directly below the currently selected Commander is shown other Commanders that are eligible for use on the selected ship. The toggle at the top shows either commanders currently assigned to other ships, or those that are in Reserve.

The center of the Commander Interface displays the Commander skill tree — discussed in detail below — with currently trained skills highlighted. At the far left is the Redistribute function, that allows players to "respec" their Commanders by clearing their skill selections, thus allowing skill points to be assigned again.

Commander Skill Progression
Skill Points Total Commander XP Required XP Required for Next Level
0 0 1,500
1 1,500 2,500
2 4,000 4,000
3 8,000 6,000
4 14,000 9,000
5 23,000 14,000
6 37,000 21,000
7 58,000 30,000
8 88,000 41,000
9 129,000 54,000
10 183,000 69,000
11 252,000 87,000
12 339,000 108,000
13 447,000 132,000
14 579,000 159,000
15 738,000 189,000
16 927,000 222,000
17 1,149,000 259,000
18 1,408,000 300,000
19 1,708,000

Commander Skill Points

The crux of the Commander system — and the main portion of the Commander interface — revolves around the various skills available to train. Players accomplish this by earning Commander experience, then spending that experience on Commander skills.

Commanders who have available skill points to spend will show unspent points in the Port screen.

Earning Commander Experience

Commanders earn commander experience (CXP) in the same way that ships do, including any bonuses to ship XP Ship XP earnings. Additional bonuses that affect only commander XP — such as from Restless Fire -3% to surface detectability range. / 4% to maximum dispersion of shells fired by the enemy at your ship. / +250% Commander experience earned in the battle. camo or the Zulu Hotel +50% Commander XP earned for the battle. signal — are added on top of this number. Therefore, it is possible to earn considerably more commander XP in a match than ship XP. See the Economics article for details of how CXP is calculated. Players can view how much commander XP they earned in a given match on the 'Credits and XP' tab of the post-battle report.

The table at right shows the experience requirements for a Commander to buy skill points.

Example Commander Experience Calculation

A player with a WG Premium account earns 2,233 base experience in a game. He has Zulu Hotel +50% Commander XP earned for the battle. and Equal Speed Charlie London +50% XP earned for the battle. signals mounted, and has hoisted the Military Month Contributor PCEE025_Military_Month_Contributor_Flag.png flag over his ship (the MMC flag grants both ship XP and commander XP bonuses). He earns:

  • 2,233 + [2,233 x 0.5 (for Premium)] = 3,350 modified base experience
  • 3,350 + [3,350 x 0.5 (for Equal Speed Charlie London)] + [3,350 x 0.05 (for Military Month Contributor)] = 5,193 ship experience
  • 5,193 + [3,350 x 0.5 (for Zulu Hotel)] + [3,350 x 0.05 (for Military Month Contributor)] = 7,036 Commander experience
The skill confirmation window.

Spending Commander Experience

Each commander displays his skill points overlaid on his portrait as available/total. Thus a commander with 15 points, only 3 assigned, would show "12/15" on the lower left of his portrait. Clicking on the commander's portrait brings up the Commander Interface screen (see the graphic above), where a new skill may be selected. The interface will ask for confirmation.

Some skills are only useful to certain classes or to ships with certain weapon systems. Skills that are not useful to the current ship are marked as such. They may still be selected. (If a skill is not useful on the current ship, it may become so when the commander is moved to a different ship.) However, considering the amount of time it takes to train a highly skilled Commander, it is best to focus his skills on ones that are immediately useful. A complete list of skills, their point costs and effects, appears below.[2]

When training skills in Rows 2, 3 or 4, Commanders must have at least one skill trained from the previous row. Commanders are free to train any skill in a row before selecting any skill in the subsequent row; they are not confined to skills only within the sub-groupings shown below (and in the skill tree in the Commander interface).

Note that the skill Direction Center for Fighters does NOT add one fighter to the Patrol Fighters consumable on aircraft carrier squadrons.

List of Base Skills

Icon Skill Name Skill Point Cost Description Effect Notes

Situational Awareness

Free. An indicator is displayed when your ship is detected by an enemy ship or aircraft. All commanders receive this ability at no cost.

List of Endurance Skills

Icon Skill Name Skill Point Cost Description Effect Notes

Priority Target

1 The detection indicator displays the number of opponents that are currently aiming at your ship or squadron. For a ship, the number of opponents aiming at the ship with main battery guns.

For a carrier squadron, the number of ships firing their AA guns at it.
This skill will not work during retraining.

Preventive Maintenance

1 Reduces the risk of main turrets, torpedo tubes, steering gears, and engine becoming incapacitated. -30% to the risk of incapacitation of modules. This skill does not apply to secondary or AA batteries.

High Alert

2 Hastens the next availability of the ship's Damage Control Party. -10% to reload time of the Damage Control Party consumable.

Jack of All Trades

2 Decreases the reload time of all ship and squadron consumables. -5% to reload time of all consumables. Stacks with other consumable reload time modifiers such as the High Alert skill or November Foxtrot (-5% reload time on all consumables.) signal. During retraining, a 50% penalty is applied to the effect of this skill.

Survivability Expert

3 Increases both ship and aircraft HP, including fighters, depending on the ship or aircraft carrier tier. +350 ship HP for each ship tier.

+25 aircraft HP for each ship tier.
Example: a Tier V ship would gain 1,750 (5x350) additional hit points.
Has greater value on smaller ships or more fragile planes.

Basics of Survivability

3 Accelerates repairs to modules, firefighting, and recovery from flooding. -15% to time of repair, firefighting, and recovery from flooding. Reduction applies only to passive repairs, firefighting, and flood control.

Manual Fire Control for Secondary Armament

4 Greatly increases the effectiveness of secondary guns against the manually selected target. -15% to the maximum dispersion of shells for the secondary armament of Tier I-VI ships.

-60% to the maximum dispersion of shells for the secondary armament of Tier VII-X ships.
This is not manual aim; the guns still aim automatically. It requires the player to manually select a target by holding down Ctrl and left-clicking on it.[3]
With this skill, the secondaries will not fire at all without manual target selection.

Fire Prevention

4 Reduces the risk of fire.

The maximum number of fires on a ship is reduced to three.

-10% to the risk of fire.

Ship can have a maximum of 3 fires burning at one time.
For battleships and cruisers, this skill also caps the number of fires in the superstructure of a ship at one (normally there are two fire zones there). For more information on Fire, visit the Fire page.

List of Attack Skills

Icon Skill Name Skill Point Cost Description Effect Notes

Expert Loader

1 Accelerates shell type switching if all main battery guns are loaded. -50% to reload time when the shell type is switched. All guns must be fully loaded for this to have effect.

Air Supremacy

1 Decreases aircraft servicing time. -5% aircraft restoration time. Does not affect the cool down time of catapult aircraft consumables. (unconfirmed)

Expert Marksman

2 Increases the rate of traverse of main gun turrets. +2.5 deg/sec to the traverse speed of turrets with a gun caliber
up to 139 mm.

+0.7 deg/sec to the traverse speed of turrets with a gun caliber
above 139 mm.

Torpedo Acceleration

2 Increases the speed of torpedoes launched from both ships and aircraft while reducing torpedo range. +5 knots to torpedo speed.

-20% to torpedo range.

Torpedo Armament Expertise

3 Reduces reload time of torpedo tubes. -10% to reloading time of torpedo tubes. Stacks with Torpedo Tubes Modification 2 (Decreases reload time of torpedo tubes: -15% reload time. / +50% risk of incapacitation.).

Aircraft Armor

3 Reduces continuous damage to aircraft in all AA defense zones. -10% continuous damage See the Anti-Aircraft Fire article.

Inertia Fuse for HE Shells

4 Increases the armor penetration of high explosive (HE) main and secondary shells, while decreasing their chance of setting the enemy ship on fire. +25% to the armor penetration capacity of HE shells.

-50% to the base chance of fire caused by HE shells.
The mechanics for HE penetration can be found in the Armor Penetration article. Also see Armor thresholds for examples.

This skill is frequently paired with Demolition Expert.

Sight Stabilization

4 Speeds up the aiming of a carrier's aircraft. +7.5% Aiming speed for attack aircraft and torpedo bombers.

+15% Aiming speed for dive bombers.

List of Support Skills

Icon Skill Name Skill Point Cost Description Effect Notes

Direction Center for Fighters

1 More effective fighter squadrons. +1 Fighter. Applies to both carrier-launched and catapult-launched fighters.

Improved Engine Boost

1 Increases the engine boost time for a carrier's squadrons. +10% aircraft engine boost time. Stacks with Aircraft Engines Modification 1 (Increases the engine boost time for the aircraft carrier's planes: +10% engine boost time.)

Smoke Screen Expert

2 Expands the smoke screen area. +20% to the radius of smoke screens. This skill will not work during retraining.

Improved Engines

2 Increases the speed of a carrier's squadrons. +2.5% Squadron speed. Stacks with Flight Control Modification 2 (Increases cruising speed of the aircraft carrier's squadrons: +5% cruising speed.)

Basic Firing Training

3 Improves the performance of smaller main guns and all secondary and AA guns. -10% to reload time of main battery guns with a caliber up to and including 139mm and all secondary battery guns.

+10% to continuous damage from AA guns.
Stacks with November Echo Settleseven +5% continuous damage by all AA guns, +5% damage per second within the explosion radius of shells fired from medium- and long-range AA defenses..

See the Anti-Aircraft Fire article for how AA defenses work.


3 Increases capacity of consumables. +1 additional charge to all consumables mounted on a ship. Does not affect the consumables of aircraft carrier squadrons.

This skill will not work during retraining.


Advanced Firing Training

4 Extends firing range of main guns with a caliber up to and including 139mm and all secondary battery guns. Increases damage per second within the explosion radius of shells fired by large caliber (>85mm) AA guns. +20% to firing range of main battery guns with a caliber up to 139mm and all secondary battery guns.

+15% damage per second within the explosion radius of shells fired from long-range AA guns.
Stacks with November Echo Settleseven +5% continuous damage by all AA guns, +5% damage per second within the explosion radius of shells fired from medium- and long-range AA defenses..

See the Anti-Aircraft Fire article for how AA defenses work.

Massive AA Fire

4 Activation of a priority sector increases the amount of instantaneous damage only.
Time to the next sector reinforcement is decreased.
+100% Instantaneous damage.

Continuous damage boost is eliminated.
See the Anti-Aircraft Fire article for how this skill works with sector reinforcement.

List of Versatility Skills

Icon Skill Name Skill Point Cost Description Effect Notes

Incoming Fire Alert

1 Provides a warning of long-range artillery fire. Displays a warning of a salvo fired at your ship from a distance of more than 4.5 km. Think of this as a "turn now!" warning. This skill will not work during retraining.

Last Gasp

1 Restores the engine boost of the carrier's last strike squadron. Completely restores the engine boost for the last attack flight of the carrier's planes.

Adrenaline Rush

2 Increases reload speed of all armament as the ship's health decreases.

Increases a carrier squadron's speed as its health decreases.

-0.2% to reload times of all types of armament for each 1% of total health lost.

+0.2% Squadron speed for each 1% of total health lost.
This skill has no effect on anti-aircraft armament.
Destroyed aircraft do not count against a squadron's health.
This skill will not work during retraining.

Last Stand

2 When the engine or steering gears are incapacitated, they continue to operate (but with a penalty). The ship remains able to move and maneuver - slowly - while the engine or steering gears are incapacitated. This skill will not work during retraining.

Demolition Expert

3 Increases the chance of ship and aircraft armament starting fire. +2% chance of HE shells causing a fire on target.

+1% chance of rockets causing a fire on target.

+5% chance of HE bombs causing a fire on target.
For more information on how fire chance is calculated, visit the Fire article.


3 Extends ship's torpedo acquisition range. +25% to the detection range of enemy torpedoes. Provides additional time to react to incoming torpedoes. Stacks with both Torpedo Lookout System (Increases the assured acquisition range of torpedoes. to a base value of 1.8 km.) and Hydroacoustic Search (While active, detects all enemy ships and torpedoes within the specified radius, without regard of obstacles such as smoke and terrain.). Does not work on aircraft.

Radio Location

4 Shows the direction to the nearest enemy. Functions on ships only.

The enemy is alerted that a bearing has been taken.

This skill will not work during retraining.

Concealment Expert

4 Reduces detectability range. -10% to the detection radius of all ships and aircraft launched from them. Stacks with other detection range reduction bonuses such as Concealment System Modification 1 (Reduces the detectability range of the ship and aircraft carrier's squadrons: -10% to detectability radius. / +5% to the dispersion of enemy shells fired at your ship.) and camouflage.
Commander Skill Retraining
Skill Points XP Required to Retrain
0 0
1 1,000
2 1,500
3 2,000
4 3,500
5 5,000
6 7,500
7 10,000
8 15,000
9 20,000
10 25,000
11 30,000
12 40,000
13 50,000
14 75,000
15 100,000
16 125,000
17 150,000
18 175,000
19 250,000

Redistribute Commander Skills

Players will sometimes want to change the skill selections on one of their Commanders. This is accomplished in the Commander Interface by utilizing the "Redistribute" button (shown highlighted in orange on the graphic above). Redistributing Commander skill points costs either 25 Doubloons or 10,000 Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP per spent skill point; players are not charged to redistribute unspent skill points. Upon confirming the redistribution, all currently trained Commander skills are cleared, the corresponding skill points are refunded, and players may begin assigning those skill points again as they see fit.

Note that when using Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP, up to level 7 it is cheaper to recruit a new commander and accelerate their training than to redistribute skills of an existing commander. This will also result in two commanders instead of one.

On occasion — such as Christmas or other holidays — Wargaming offers sales on redistribution. Clan Battle participants have been enjoying one week of free redistribution at the beginning and at the end of Clan Battle seasons.

Reserve Slots

Reserve slots — (shown highlighted in green on the graphic above) — hold unassigned commanders. Commanders in the Reserve can be assigned to any ship (of the same nation) as normal, subject to re-training costs (see below).

Each player starts with four (4) Reserve slots. Additional Reserve slots can be purchased with doubloons -- normally four (4) slots for 100 Doubloons. Slots are very rarely available through other means.

If a player receives a ship with a Commander, either from Premium shop, Armory, or a Container, the player receive an extra Reserve slot for that Commander.

Retraining Commanders

Once trained to a non-premium ship from the tech tree, a Commander's skills can be fully utilized only on that ship. Transferring to a new tech tree ship requires the commander to re-training to that ship, which is usually accomplished by earning a certain amount of Commander XP in his new ship (see the table to the right). Normal commander training resumes once re-training has been accomplished.

When re-training is required, players are offered several options. Commanders can spend:

  • 500Doubloons, completing re-training instantly.
  • 200,000Credits, requiring them to earn 1/2 the Commander XP normally required (see table) to completely re-train (or spend the full amount of doubloons).
  • nothing, requiring them to earn Commander XP in order to fully re-train for their new ships.

Commanders can also spend Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP (and/or Free XP) equal to the remaining cost of re-training, finishing re-training instantly. This can be combined with the 200,000 Credits option in order to save ECXP.

Remember that while a Commander is re-training, skill effects are reduced by 50% and skills with a binary (on or off) effect are disabled.

Premium Ships

A commander can be assigned to a premium ship of the same nation at any time without undergoing re-training. His skills will continue to work at full strength on the premium ship. Commander XP earned while assigned to a premium ship counts toward re-training on his specialized ship. This makes premium ships a great way to re-train commanders while avoiding retraining penalties. The commander can be moved back to his specialized ship without penalty.

Elite Commander Experience

A commander who earns nineteen (19) Skill Points becomes an Elite Commander. Elite Commanders continue to earn experience as do lower-ranked commanders. However, an Elite Commander no longer accumulates CXP; his experience is earned as Elite Commander Experience Elite Commander XP (ECXP) that accumulates in a common pool (like Free XP). (The current ECXP balance is shown highlighted in purple on the graphic above).

The Accelerated Training window.

As Free XP is available to all ships, Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP is available to all commanders on a player account.

Using Elite Commander XP

Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP can be:

  • Applied to any non-elite commander to gain additional skill points.
  • Used to retrain any commander moved to a different, non-premium ship (instead of spending doubloons).
  • Used to redistribute skill points (in lieu of using doubloons).
  • Converted into Free XP Free XP for doubloonsDoubloons.

Spending Free XP on Commanders

After all ECXP is spent, Free XP Free XP can be used instead of Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP.[5]

For a single operation, Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP and Free XP Free XP can be spent together, just as Ship XP and Free XP can be spent together researching ships and ship modules. When Elite Commander XP and Free XP are spent, the following rules apply:

  • To retrain a commander, promote him to a new rank, or redistribute his skill points, the available ECXP and/or FXP must be sufficient to fully complete the operation (no partial operations).
  • When an operation can be completed, Elite Commander XP is spent first then Free XP is used only if there is not enough ECXP.

Example using both Elite Commander XP and Free XP

A commander with 7 Skill Points and 100 CXP is assigned to a non-premium ship for which he is not trained. 10,000 XP is required to fully re-train him. The player decides to accelerate re-training by 50%, spending 200,000 Credits Credits. Consequently, 5000 more XP is required to finish re-training. 8000 Elite Commander XP Elite Commander XP is available. The player completes re-training by spending 5000 ECXP. 3000 ECXP remains. (Note that CXP cannot be spent for re-training.)

Now the player chooses to promote this commander to the maximum attainable rank using all types of XP. He has 100 CXP, 3000 ECXP, and 40,000 Free XP.

The cost of the next commander rank (8) is 30,000 XP. To reach it, he spends 100 CXP, 3000 ECXP, and 26,900 Free XP (total 30,000). To reach the next rank (9), 41,000 XP is required. Since he has no CXP or ECXP and only 13,100 Free XP remaining, he cannot promote this commander to rank (9).

Converting Elite Commander XP to Free XP

Elite Commander XP can be converted to Free XP in the same way as Elite (ship) XP — ( 25 ECXP Elite Commander XP + 1 Doubloons => 25 Free XP Free XP ). Free XP cannot be converted to Elite Commander XP.

Unique Commanders

Some commanders have unique talents or modified commander skills. Check out the list of unique commanders to learn more.

Commander Ranks

As a Commander gains levels, they are given ranks based on their nation. These roughly correspond to the historical ranks awarded to officers of their nation's respective navies. The table below lists these ranks as they appear in game.

Skill Points Wows_flag_Japan.png
0 Kaigun Shōi Kōhosei Warrant Officer Michman Oberfähnrich zur See Warrant Officer Aspirant Midshipman Aspirante Guardiamarina
1 - 2 Kaigun Shōi Lieutenant Junior Grade Leytenant Leutnant zur See Sub-Lieutenant Enseigne de deuxième classe Sub-Lieutenant Guardiamarina
3 - 4 Kaigun Chūi Lieutenant Starshiy-Leytenant Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant Enseigne de première classe Lieutenant Sottotenente di Vascello
5 - 6 Kaigun Daii Lieutenant Commander Kapitan-Leytenant Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant de vaisseau Lieutenant Commander Tenente di Vascello
7 - 8 Kaigun Shōsa Commander Kapitan 3 Ranga Korvettenkapitän Commander Capitaine de corvette Commander Capitano di Corvetta
9 - 10 Kaigun Chūsa Captain Kapitan 2 Ranga Fregattenkapitän Captain Capitaine de frégate Captain Capitano di Fregata
11 - 12 Kaigun Daisa Commodore Kapitan 1 Ranga Kapitän zur See Commodore Capitaine de vaisseau Commodore Capitano di Vascello
13 - 14 Kaigun Shōshō Rear Admiral Kontr-Admiral Konteradmiral Rear Admiral Contre-amiral Rear Admiral Contrammiraglio
15 - 16 Kaigun Chūjo Vice Admiral Vitse-Admiral Vizeadmiral Vice Admiral Vice-amiral Vice Admiral Ammiraglio di Divisione
17 - 18 Kaigun Taishō Admiral Admiral Admiral Admiral Vice-amiral d'escadre Admiral Ammiraglio
19 Gensui Kaigun Taishō Fleet Admiral Admiral flota Großadmiral Admiral of the Fleet Amiral Admiral of the Fleet Ammiraglio di Armata

Skill Points Содружество_Наций_флаг_ВМС_с_тенью.png
Wows_flag_Europe.png Europe Wows_flag_Pan_America.png
0 Warrant Officer Seefähnrich Chorąży marynarki Adjudant-Onderofficier Fänrik Guardiamarina
1 - 2 Sub-Lieutenant Korvettenleutnant Podporucznik marynarki Luitenant ter Zee
der 3e klasse
Underlöjtnant Teniente de Corbeta
3 - 4 Lieutenant Fregattenleutnant Porucznik marynarki Luitenant ter Zee
der 2e klasse
Löjtnant Teniente de Fragata
5 - 6 Lieutenant Commander Linienschiffsleutnant Kapitan marynarki Luitenant ter Zee
der 1e klasse
Kapten Teniente de Navío
7 - 8 Commander Korvettenkapitän Komandor podporucznik Kapitein-Luitenant ter Zee Kommendörkapten
av 2 graden
Capitán de Corbeta
9 - 10 Captain Fregattenkapitän Komandor porucznik Kapitein ter Zee Kommendörkapten
av 1 graden
Capitán de Fragata
11 - 12 Commodore Linienschiffkapitän Komandor Commandeur Kommendör Capitán de Navío
13 - 14 Rear Admiral Kontreadmiral Kontradmirał Schout-bij-Nacht Konteramiral Contralmirante
15 - 16 Vice Admiral Vizeadmiral Wiceadmirał Viceadmiraal Viceamiral Vicealmirante
17 - 18 Admiral Admiral Admirał floty Luitenant-Admiraal Amiral Almirante de Escuadra
19 Admiral of the Fleet Großadmiral Admirał Admiraal Amiral Almirante


  1. To recruit a commander to Reserve, temporarily move the commander of a ship to reserve, recruit a new commander, then swap back.
  2. With Update 0.8.0, a number of skills have changed. See this and nearby WoWS News articles: https://worldofwarships.com/en/news/development/cv8-how-to-tune/#customization
  3. Secondary target selection can be tricky at first. To make it more sure, with the Alternate Interface Mode set to Full (highly recommended on the Settings.Controls panel) <ctrl-left click> on the red damage bar just above the range number.
  4. See the Fire chance calculation. Ship:Update 0.9.2
  5. Free XP becomes available at Account Level 5. Commander operations and ECXP become available at Account Level 7. Since at that point the account will have no ECXP, accumulated FXP may be used in its place.