Welcome to Wargaming.net Wiki!
Variants
In other languages

North Carolina

Jump to: navigation, search
Revision as of 06:55, 16 January 2020
fixed link
Revision as of 07:10, 16 January 2020
added info about halloween camo
Line 3:Line 3:
  
 |Anno=<!-- you can write below short description for the ship. it will replace default once. --> |Anno=<!-- you can write below short description for the ship. it will replace default once. -->
?The first U.S. battleship of the new generation. The key advantage over her predecessors of this type was significantly increased speed. In contrast to preceding ships of the same type, she featured a thinner armor belt, but had very solid horizontal armor protection and a superior AA armament including numerous dual-purpose artillery.<br><br>USS ''North Carolina'' is now preserved as a [http://www.battleshipnc.com/ military museum ship] in Wilmington, North Carolina.<br><br>{{Model3DViewer|0b2da4c67ab84ac1b78429e0fd86b758}}+The first U.S. battleship of the new generation. The key advantage over her predecessors of this type was significantly increased speed. In contrast to preceding ships of the same type, she featured a thinner armor belt, but had very solid horizontal armor protection and a superior AA armament including numerous dual-purpose artillery.<br><br>USS ''North Carolina'' is now preserved as a [//www.battleshipnc.com/ military museum ship] in Wilmington, North Carolina.<br><br>{{Model3DViewer|0b2da4c67ab84ac1b78429e0fd86b758}}
  
 |Performance=<!-- write text about performance in battles below --> |Performance=<!-- write text about performance in battles below -->
Line 103:Line 103:
  
 Players who wish to spend doubloons can equip ''North Carolina'' with [[Ship:Camouflage#Permanent_Camouflage|Type 18 camouflage]] that lowers her detection radius, reduces the accuracy of incoming shells, reduces her repair costs, and increases the amount of experience she earns.  Players who wish to spend doubloons can equip ''North Carolina'' with [[Ship:Camouflage#Permanent_Camouflage|Type 18 camouflage]] that lowers her detection radius, reduces the accuracy of incoming shells, reduces her repair costs, and increases the amount of experience she earns.
 +
 +
 +0.8.10
 +Kagerō
 +Kagero_wows_main.jpg
 +Destroyer | Japan | Tier VIII
 +Tech Tree Position
 +Akatsuki
 +Arrow_down.png
 +Kagerō_icon_small.png
 +Arrow_down.png
 +Yūgumo
 +stock top
 +General
 +Research price115000 exp
 +Purchase price9,100,000 Credits
 +Hit Points13,300
 +Main Battery
 +127 mm/50 3rd Year Type3 х 2 pcs.
 +Rate of Fire8.51 shots/min.
 +Reload Time7.05 sec.
 +Rotation Speed6.9 deg./sec.
 +180 Degree Turn Time26.09 sec.
 +Firing Range8.55 km.
 +Maximum Dispersion79 m.
 +HE Shell127 mm HE Type1
 +Maximum HE Shell Damage2,150
 +Chance of Fire on Target Caused by HE Shell9 %
 +Initial HE Shell Velocity915 m./s.
 +HE Shell Weight23 kg.
 +AP Shell127 mm AP Type0
 +Maximum AP Shell Damage2,200
 +Initial AP Shell Velocity915 m./s.
 +AP Shell Weight23 kg.
 +Torpedo Tubes
 +610 mm Quad2 х 4 pcs.
 +Rate of Fire0.59 shots/min.
 +Reload Time101 sec.
 +Rotation Speed25 deg./sec.
 +180 Degree Turn Time7.2 sec.
 +TorpedoType90 mod. 1
 +Maximum Damage17,233
 +Torpedo Speed62 knot
 +Torpedo Range9.99 km.
 +AA Defense
 +25 mm/60 Type96 mod. 14 х 1 pcs.
 +. . . Average Damage per Second7.2
 +. . . Firing Range2.49 km.
 +25 mm/60 Type96 Triple mod. 13 х 3 pcs.
 +. . . Average Damage per Second9.9
 +. . . Firing Range2.49 km.
 +Maneuverability
 +Maximum Speed35 knot
 +Turning Circle Radius640 m.
 +Rudder Shift Time4 sec.
 +Concealment
 +Surface Detectability Range6.84 km.
 +Air Detectability Range3.07 km.
 +Battle Levels
 +12345678910
 +Wows_anno_flag_japan.pngVIII
 +Ship_PJSD208_Kagero.png
 +9,100,000
 +Kagerō — Japanese Tier VIII destroyer.
 +
 +Due to a good balance of her main characteristics, Kagero was the most successful destroyer design in the Imperial Japanese Navy. She had extremely long-range, high-speed, oxygen-fueled torpedoes that made her considerably superior to all ships of her type in terms of torpedo armament power.
 +
 +
 +Modules
 +Main Battery Rate of Fire
 +(shots/min) 180° Turn Time
 +(sec) Maximum Dispersion
 +(m) Maximum HE Shell Damage
 +(HP) Chance of Fire on Target Caused by HE Shell
 +(%) Maximum AP Shell Damage
 +(HP) Research price
 +(exp) Purchase price
 +(Credits)
 +127 mm/50 Type3 8.5 26.09 79 2,150 9 2,200 0 590,000
 +Hull Hit Points
 +(HP) Armor
 +(mm) Armor
 +(mm) Main Turrets
 +(pcs.) Secondary Gun Turrets
 +(pcs.) AA Mounts
 +(pcs.) Torpedo Tubes
 +(pcs.) Hangar Capacity
 +(pcs.) Research price
 +(exp) Purchase price
 +(Credits)
 +Kagerō (A) 13,300 6 20 3 3/4 2 0 0 610,000
 +Kagerō (B) 15,100 6 20 3 10 2 0 21,000 1,600,000
 +Torpedoes Rate of Fire
 +(shots/min) Torpedo Tubes Reload Time
 +(sec) 180° Turn Time
 +(sec) Maximum Damage
 +(HP) Torpedo Speed
 +(knot) Torpedo Range
 +(km) Research price
 +(exp) Purchase price
 +(Credits)
 +Type90 mod. 1 0.6 101 7.2 17,233 62 10 0 1,300,000
 +Type93 mod. 2 0.5 112 7.2 20,966 67 10 20,000 1,800,000
 +Gun Fire Control System Firing Range Increase
 +(%) Maximum Firing Range
 +(km) Research price
 +(exp) Purchase price
 +(Credits)
 +Type8 mod. 1 0 8.6 0 350,000
 +Type8 mod. 2 10 9.4 8,000 780,000
 +Engine Maximum Speed
 +(knot) Research price
 +(exp) Purchase price
 +(Credits)
 +Propulsion: 52,000 hp 35 0 600,000
 +Compatible Upgrades
 + Slot 1 Main Armaments Modification 1 Auxiliary Armaments Modification 1 Magazine Modification 1
 + Slot 2 Damage Control System Modification 1 Propulsion Modification 1 Steering Gears Modification 1
 + Slot 3 Main Battery Modification 2 Aiming Systems Modification 1
 + Slot 4 Damage Control System Modification 2 Propulsion Modification 2 Steering Gears Modification 2
 + Slot 5 Target Acquisition System Modification 1 Concealment System Modification 1 Steering Gears Modification 3
 +Player Opinion
 +Performance
 +Dropping down from Tier IX as a part of the Japanese destroyer line changes in Update 0.5.15, Kagerō now fills Fubuki’s old spot at Tier VIII. Fans of the old Fubuki and new captains who have moved up from Akatsuki will find Kagerō familiar in many ways. Both should be accustomed to the A-X-Y turret arrangement of the main battery, her handling characteristics are nearly identical (similar turning circle radius and rudder shift time), and her anti-aircraft suite is still hardly worth mentioning. So, what's new?
 +
 +For starters, Kagerō’s guns reload faster, though they do give up some range to those of Akatsuki and pre-0.5.15 Fubuki. This gives her more of a fighting chance when cornered by an enemy gunboat destroyer (such as Benson), especially if said enemy is already wounded. With that said, however, captains who have progressed this far up the line should know by now when to hang in a gun duel against an enemy destroyer and when discretion is the better part of valor; never court a gunfight with an American or Russian destroyer with lots of health. Kagerō’s detection radius is improved over both old Fubuki and Akatsuki; not only can she can equip Concealment Module 1 (as a Tier VIII ship), but her base detection radius of 6.8 km is the lowest of all high-tier Japanese destroyers.
 +
 +Kagerō has some fairly glaring deficiencies compared to her counterparts at Tier VIII, though. Her speed is fairly pedestrian, her anti-aircraft guns are ineffective at shooting down enemy planes, and her main battery reload and turret traverse times are painfully slow. Just like Akatsuki, captains are likely to miss the tremendous tactical flexibility of Fubuki’s three torpedo launchers. As nasty as her upgraded torpedoes are — and they hit very, very hard — their reload time means that getting off more than a few salvos in a match is tough. Luckily, Kagerō can give up Smoke Generator (While active, generates a smoke screen that blocks line-of-sight for both enemies and teammates.) in exchange for Torpedo Reload Booster (When used, torpedo reload time is significantly reduced.). This allows her to force an 8-second reload time on her torpedoes once every six minutes (or four, with the premium version). Given her best-in-tier detection radius, this will be a worthwhile gamble for many captains.
 +
 +The Japanese destroyer line becomes challenging to excel in at high tiers, but Kagero provides all the tools necessary for captains to do just that; they need only bring patience and a willingness to learn how to handle her.
 +
 +Pros:
 +Lowest detection range of all Tier VIII destroyers.
 +Fast, powerful torpedoes that hit like freight trains.
 +Good handling; same turning circle as her predecessors, quick rudder shift.
 +Gains access to Torpedo Reload Booster (When used, torpedo reload time is significantly reduced.), allowing her to launch 16 torpedoes within 10 seconds.
 +
 +Cons:
 +Mediocre top speed of 35 knots.
 +Main battery is slightly improved from Akatsuki, but is still nothing special.
 +Painfully long torpedo reload time, regardless of which torpedoes are equipped.
 +Has to choose between Torpedo Reload Booster (When used, torpedo reload time is significantly reduced.) or Smoke Generator (While active, generates a smoke screen that blocks line-of-sight for both enemies and teammates.), unlike Akizuki.
 +Research
 +Hull (B) is unquestionably the most important upgrade for Kagerō; the extra hit points provide her additional survivability. The Torpedo module is a fairly minor buff to her fish; the Fire Control System module might actually be better to pick-up first. Captain's pick for this one, there's not really a wrong answer.
 +Optimal Configuration
 +Upgrades
 +The recommended upgrades for Kagerō are as follows:
 +
 +Slot 1: Main Armaments Modification 1 (-20% to the risk of main battery becoming incapacitated. / +50% to main battery survivability. / -20% to main battery repair time. / -20% to the risk of torpedo tubes becoming incapacitated. / +50% to torpedo tubes survivability. / -20% to torpedo tubes repair time.)
 +Slot 2: Propulsion Modification 1 (-20% to the risk of the engine becoming incapacitated. / -20% to engine repair time.)
 +Slot 3: Aiming Systems Modification 1 (-7% to maximum dispersion of main battery shells. / +20% to torpedo tubes traverse speed. / +5% to secondary battery maximum firing range. / -5% to maximum dispersion of secondary shells.) or Main Battery Modification 2 (+5% to main battery loading time. / +15% to main battery traverse speed.)
 +Slot 4: Propulsion Modification 2 (-50% to time for reaching full power. / Increases engine power when the ship starts moving.)
 +Slot 5: Concealment System Modification 1 (-10% to detectability radius. / +5% to the maximum dispersion of enemy shells that fire on your ship.)
 +As a Tier VIII ship, Kagerō gains access to Slot 5; Concealment System Modification 1 is the logical choice for the new slot. Her other upgrade recommendations remain largely as they were for Akatsuki: Main Armaments Modification 1 in Slot 1, Aiming Systems Modification 1 or Main Battery Modification 2 in Slot 3, and Propulsion Modifications 1 and 2 in Slot 2 and Slot 4, respectively.
 +
 +Commander Skills
 +[show] Recommended Commander Skills Menu_icon_captain.png
 +Consumables
 +Kagerō can equip the following consumables:
 +
 +Slot 1: Damage Control Party (When activated, instantly repairs fires, floods, and incapacitations, and prevents more for the duration.)
 +Slot 2: Smoke Generator (While active, generates a smoke screen that blocks line-of-sight for both enemies and teammates.) or Torpedo Reload Booster (When used, torpedo reload time is significantly reduced.)
 +Slot 3: Engine Boost (While active, increases a ship's speed by a fixed percentage.)
 +Kagerō captains must choose between equipping Smoke Generator (While active, generates a smoke screen that blocks line-of-sight for both enemies and teammates.) and a downgraded version of the Torpedo Reload Booster (When used, torpedo reload time is significantly reduced.) consumable that Shiratsuyu and Akizuki have access to. Whichever one is chosen, captains are encouraged to invest the credits (or doubloons) in the premium version. As ever, investing in Damage Control Party II (When activated, instantly repairs fires, floods, and incapacitations, and prevents more for the duration.) is also highly recommended. Engine Boost II (While active, increases a ship's speed by a fixed percentage.) might be worthwhile for captains without Smoke Generator (While active, generates a smoke screen that blocks line-of-sight for both enemies and teammates.); otherwise, the free version should be more than adequate.
 +
 +Camouflage
 +Type 1, 2, or 5 camouflage can be equipped for credits; Types 1 or 5 are recommended at a minimum to reduce detectibility range.
 +
 +Players who wish to spend doubloons can equip Kagerō with Type 18 camouflage that lowers her detection radius, reduces the accuracy of incoming shells, reduces her repair costs, and increases the amount of experience she earns.
 +
 +North Carolina also has an alternate premium camouflage called "Leviathan", in which she appears as she does during the Halloween scenario "Terror of the Deep".
  
 |Signals=<!-- write text about best set of signals below --> |Signals=<!-- write text about best set of signals below -->

Revision as of 07:10, 16 January 2020

N/A | N/A | Tier
Tech Tree Position
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
Arrow_down.png
File:icon small.png
Arrow_down.png
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
[[File:<value_unset_error>_icon_small.png|<value_unset_error>|link=Ship:<value_unset_error>]]
stock
 top
General
Research pricelevel;mark_id;mark;shortmark_id;shortMark;description_id;description;price_credit;price_gold;nation;icon;name exp
Purchase pricepromo  Doubloons
Hit Points25,600 
Main Battery
100 mm/65 Type985 х 2 pcs.
Rate of Fire20 shots/min.
Reload Timesec.
Rotation Speed16 deg./sec.
180 Degree Turn Time11.25 sec.
Firing Range12.55 km.
HE Shell100 mm HE Type98 
Maximum HE Shell Damage1,200 
Chance of Fire on Target Caused by HE Shell%
Initial HE Shell Velocity1000 m./s.
HE Shell Weight13 kg.
AP Shell100 mm AP Type98 
Maximum AP Shell Damage1,700 
Initial AP Shell Velocity1000 m./s.
AP Shell Weight13 kg.
Torpedo Tubes
610 mm Sextuple1 х 6 pcs.
Rate of Fire0.35 shots/min.
Reload Time171 sec.
Rotation Speed25 deg./sec.
180 Degree Turn Time7.2 sec.
TorpedoType93 mod. 3 
Maximum Damage23,767 
Torpedo Speed67 knot
Torpedo Range12 km.
AA Defense
100 mm/65 Type985 х 2 pcs.
. . . Average Damage per Second104 
. . . Firing Range5.01 km.
25 mm/60 Type96 mod. 116 х 1 pcs.
. . . Average Damage per Second28.8 
. . . Firing Range2.49 km.
40 mm Bofors "Chi" Type986 х 2 pcs.
. . . Average Damage per Second66 
. . . Firing Range3.51 km.
Maneuverability
Maximum Speed35.7 knot
Turning Circle Radius830 m.
Rudder Shift Time5.5 sec.
Concealment
Surface Detectability Range7.92 km.
Air Detectability Range4.18 km.
Battle Levels
12345678910
[[File:Wows_anno_flag_<mark_unset_error>.png|160px]]
<span class="b-description-img_type b-description-img_type__<mark_unset_error>-premium"></span>
promo

[[Ship:|]] — N/A promo premium Tier  N/A.

The first U.S. battleship of the new generation. The key advantage over her predecessors of this type was significantly increased speed. In contrast to preceding ships of the same type, she featured a thinner armor belt, but had very solid horizontal armor protection and a superior AA armament including numerous dual-purpose artillery.

USS North Carolina is now preserved as a military museum ship in Wilmington, North Carolina.

Modules

Compatible Upgrades

 Slot 1  Air Groups Modification 1 Main Armaments Modification 1 Auxiliary Armaments Modification 1 Magazine Modification 1 Aiming Systems Modification 0
 Slot 2  Damage Control System Modification 1 Aircraft Engines Modification 1 Engine Room Protection
 Slot 3  Main Battery Modification 2 Secondary Battery Modification 1 AA Guns Modification 1 Artillery Plotting Room Modification 1 Aiming Systems Modification 1 Torpedo Bombers Modification 1 Attack Aircraft Modification 1 Torpedo Tubes Modification 1 Aerial Torpedoes Modification 1
 Slot 4  Damage Control System Modification 2 Propulsion Modification 1 Steering Gears Modification 1 Attack Aircraft Modification 2 Torpedo Bombers Modification 2 Bombers Modification 2
 Slot 5  Flight Control Modification 1 Torpedo Lookout System Concealment System Modification 1 Steering Gears Modification 2 Ship Consumables Modification 1||Squadron Consumables Modification 1
 Slot 6  Main Battery Modification 3 Torpedo Tubes Modification 2 Gun Fire Control System Modification 2 Flight Control Modification 2 Air Groups Modification 2 Artillery Plotting Room Modification 2 Auxiliary Armaments Modification 2

Player Opinion

Performance

The biggest transition in American battleship game play, North Carolina is the first fast battleship of the American line. She is a welcome change of pace for players used to the 21 knot top speed of New York, New Mexico, and Colorado, and is a radical departure from the pudgy appearance and mediocre firing range of her dreadnought predecessors.

North Carolina boasts speed, protection, armament, and handling that represent improvements in ship design made over the span of a 15-year gap in American battleship construction that began in the mid-1920's. Her fully upgraded top speed of 28 knots is immediately noticeable, and while other Tier VIII battleships like Bismarck, Tirpitz, and Amagi can still outrun her, the gap in speed is limited to a only few knots. North Carolina is more than capable of keeping up with her team and using her excellent range to begin punishing enemy units while they close.

North Carolina can fire at very long ranges fully upgraded, which is a double-edged sword. If the super-heavy AP shells hit at such ranges, they are legitimate plunging fire penetrations and will pierce most citadel decks. However her dispersion is irritating and the muzzle velocities of her 16-inch, 45 caliber guns are slower than the 50 caliber guns found on Iowa and Montana. Those deadly high arc shells seemingly take forever to return to earth at ranges past 13-14 km, meaning that captains must use additional lead when firing at far off targets. Frustratingly, she cannot equip Aiming Systems Modification 1 to improve her dispersion, either. All-and-all, 23+ kilometer bombing is not a good use of salvos and match time unless the enemy is camping in place.

Still, there are some nice trade-offs. Unlike many ships, her stock configuration is relatively solid, and when fully upgraded her anti-aircraft suite is brutally punishing to enemy planes. When fully-rigged for stealth — via Concealment Systems Modification 1 and the Concealment Expert commander skill — her surface detection range drops to a positively ludicrous 12.1 km. This frequently allows North Carolina to maneuver unseen and strike at unsuspecting cruisers and battleships from an angle they did not anticipate. It also allows her to cease fire and escape when necessary; she is very easy to citadel while broadside to enemy ships (even cruisers!), so care must be taken when turning around under fire. She has the worst torpedo protection out of all Tier VIII battleships; captains must be very cautious about putting North Carolina into a position where enemy destroyers will focus torpedoes on her.

With careful positioning and heads-up play, North Carolina is an solid all-around Tier VIII battleship.


Pros:

  • Handles very differently from her predecessors.
  • Highest range of any Tier VIII battleship.
  • Unrivaled AA suite at her tier.
  • Very durable when angled.
  • Decently fast at nearly 28 knots.
  • 16-inch guns fire the same super-heavy shells as Iowa and Montana, so the shell penetration and damage are devastating with good hits.

Cons:

  • Rudder shift is fairly slow.
  • Below average armor piercing shell velocity.
  • Dispersion can be unfriendly at times, and she can't mount Aiming Systems Modification 1 to improve it.
  • Large citadel and not as well-armored as Colorado; flashing her broadside to enemy battleships is suicidal.
  • Small volume of secondaries compared to other Tier VIII battleships.
  • Extremely poor torpedo defense at only 19% (compared to Amagi’s 43% and Bismarck’s 22%).

Research

Experience gains should be allocated to Hull (B) first, the Engine upgrade module next, and lastly to the Fire Control System buff to North Carolina’s range.

Optimal Configuration

Upgrades

Slot 1 is most commonly filled with Main Armaments Modification 1 (-20% to the risk of main battery becoming incapacitated. / +50% to main battery survivability. / -20% to main battery repair time. / -20% to the risk of torpedo tubes becoming incapacitated. / +50% to torpedo tubes survivability. / -20% to torpedo tubes repair time.), though Auxiliary Armaments Modification 1 (Increases survivability of the secondary battery and AA mounts: +100% survivability to each.) is a popular pick for captains who go for a full AA build with other upgrades and commander skills.

Slot 2 has one choice for battleships - Damage Control System Modification 1 (Reduces the risk of fire and flooding.: -5% to the risk of fire. / -3% to the risk of flooding when torpedoes hit the torpedo protection.). This will reduce chances of fire and flood.

Slot 3 offers several options. AA Guns Modification 1 (Improves AA efficiency: +20% reduction in the preparation time of the priority AA sector.) will boost AA strength, while Secondary Battery Modification 2 (+20% to secondary battery maximum firing range. /    -20% to maximum dispersion of secondary battery shells.) will boost the range and accuracy of secondaries instead. Artillery Plotting Room Modification 1 (Extends the firing range of the main battery and secondary battery: +16% main battery firing range. / +5% secondary battery firing range. / -5% secondary battery dispersion.) will increase range and give secondaries a slight boost in range and accuracy, but may be a weaker choice than the other two.

Slot 4 Steering Gears Modification 1 (Reduces rudder shift time: -20% rudder shift time.) is recommended and will reduce rudder shift time. Captains with fire problems could also consider Damage Control System Modification 2 (Accelerates fire extinguishing and recovery from flooding: -15% flooding recovery time. / -15% fire duration.), reducing the amount of time on fire and conserving hit points.

Slot 5 Maximizing stealth is never a bad choice. With the Concealment Expert commander skill, Concealment System Modification 1 (Reduces the detectability range of the ship and aircraft carrier's squadrons: -10% to detectability radius. / +5% to the dispersion of enemy shells fired at your ship.), and appropriate camouflage, this ship can choose when to engage the enemy.

Commander Skills

North Carolina is often built either for anti-aircraft, or for survivability. The captain skills reflect this, either focusing on survival skills like Fire Prevention, High Alert, and Basics of Surivability, or skills such as Advanced Firing Training and Manual Fire Control for AA Armament. Concealment Expert is highly recommended with all builds.

Consumables

' can equip the following consumables:

Camouflage

Type 1, 2, or 5 camouflage can be equipped for credits; Types 2 or 5 are recommended at a minimum to reduce the accuracy of incoming shells.

Players who wish to spend doubloons can equip North Carolina with Type 18 camouflage that lowers her detection radius, reduces the accuracy of incoming shells, reduces her repair costs, and increases the amount of experience she earns.


0.8.10 Kagerō Kagero_wows_main.jpg Destroyer

Signals

As a battleship, North Carolina benefits greatly from flags that boost her survivability, such as India Delta, November Foxtrot, and India Yankee.

Gallery

Historical Info

Historical Gallery


<span class="b-tech-nav_icon b-tech-nav_icon__<mark_unset_error>"></span>Ships of N/A
Destroyers  
Cruisers  
Battleships  
Aircraft Carriers
<span class="b-tech-nav_icon b-tech-nav_icon__<mark_unset_error>"></span>N/A
Japan  
U.S.A.  
U.S.S.R.  
Germany  
Europe  
Italy  
U.K.  
Pan-Asia  
France  
Commonwealth  
Pan-America