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M3 Lee

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 {{panel title|icon=[[image:USA-M3 Grant.png|link=|left]]|rMargin=248px|content= {{panel title|icon=[[image:USA-M3 Grant.png|link=|left]]|rMargin=248px|content=
?The M3 Lee is a Tier 4 USA medium tank. Research leads to 3 different tanks; the [[T1 Heavy]], the [[M4 Sherman]], and the [[M7 Priest]]. This is unfortunate, because the M3 Lee is a fairly awful tank to play. The M3 Lee's 75mm gun is not mounted in a turret, and as such, it plays much like a Tank Destroyer: which is to stay back as a sniper. It is relatively slow for it's tier. This is worsened by the fact that it's frontal armor is less then adequate, so when you are shooting the Driver is constantly in danger. The 75mm gun can tear other tanks apart fairly quickly, but the gun is generally inaccurate. A TD with an inaccurate gun is difficult to play, so simply gird yourself and "grind" through this unit to reach your next vehicle. +The M3 Lee is a Tier 4 USA medium tank. Research leads to 3 different tanks; the [[T1 Heavy]], the [[M4 Sherman]], and the [[M7 Priest]]. This is unfortunate, because the M3 Lee is a fairly awful tank to play. The M3 Lee's 75mm gun is not mounted in a turret, and as such, it plays much like a Tank Destroyer: which is to stay back as a sniper. It is relatively slow for its tier. This is worsened by the fact that its frontal armor is less then adequate, so when you are shooting the Driver is constantly in danger. The 75mm gun can tear other tanks apart fairly quickly, but the gun is generally inaccurate. A TD with an inaccurate gun is difficult to play, so simply gird yourself and "grind" through this unit to reach your next vehicle.
 }} }}
 {{Modules {{Modules

Revision as of 00:48, 9 June 2011

M3 Lee

Render
Medium Tank M3
USA Medium Tank Tier IV
Totals
Cost 155,300  Credits
Health 310
Weight/Load Limit 27.87/28.7t
Crew
6
Mobility
Engine Power 400hp
Speed Limit 38km/h
Traverse Speed 40deg/s
Armor
Hull Armor 50/38/38mm
Turret Armor51/51/51mm
Armament
Damage 83-138HP
Penetration 68-113mm
Rate of Fire 18.99r/m
Accuracy 0.41m
Aim time 1.6s
Turret Traverse 48deg/s
Gun Traverse Arc gunTraverseArc
Gun Vertical Limits gunVerticalLimits
Ammo Capacity ammo
General
Chance of Fire 20%
View Range 360m
Signal Range 300m
Parent Contour-USA-M2_med.png
Child Contour-USA-M4_Sherman.pngContour-noImage.pngContour-USA-M7_Priest.png
Values Are Stock // Top
USA-M3_Grant.png

The M3 Lee is a Tier 4 USA medium tank. Research leads to 3 different tanks; the T1 Heavy, the M4 Sherman, and the M7 Priest. This is unfortunate, because the M3 Lee is a fairly awful tank to play. The M3 Lee's 75mm gun is not mounted in a turret, and as such, it plays much like a Tank Destroyer: which is to stay back as a sniper. It is relatively slow for its tier. This is worsened by the fact that its frontal armor is less then adequate, so when you are shooting the Driver is constantly in danger. The 75mm gun can tear other tanks apart fairly quickly, but the gun is generally inaccurate. A TD with an inaccurate gun is difficult to play, so simply gird yourself and "grind" through this unit to reach your next vehicle.
















Modules

Gun
Tr
Nm
Dam
Pen
RoF
Acr
Aim
Pr
Wt
04IV
75 mm Gun M2
110/110/175(HP)
90/125/38(mm)
18.02-18.99(r/m)
0.41(m)
1.6(s)
00023 000 23 000 Credits.png
1 237 1 237(kg)
04IV
75 mm Gun M3L/37
110/110/175(HP)
92/127/38(mm)
18.02-23.08(r/m)
0.40(m)
1.8(s)
00030 000 30 000 Credits.png
1 437 1 437(kg)

Turret
Tr
Nm
Arm
T.Tr
VR
Pr
Wt
03III
M3 S
0051 51/51/51(mm)
0048 48(d/s)
0360 360(m)
00002 880 2 880 Credits.png
1 250 1 250(kg)

Engine
Tr
Nm
Pw
CoF
Pr
Wt
04IV
Wright R-975EC2
0400 400(h.p.)
020 20%
00011 600 11 600 Credits.png
0515 515(kg)
05V
Chrysler A57
0440 440(h.p.)
020 20%
00013 900 13 900 Credits.png
0570 570(kg)

Suspension
Tr
Nm
LL
Tv
Pr
Wt
03III
VVSST41
28.7 28.7(t)
040 40(d/s)
00001 870 1 870 Credits.png
5 000 5 000(kg)
04IV
VVSST48
29.9 29.9(t)
043 43(d/s)
00004 650 4 650 Credits.png
5 000 5 000(kg)

Radio
Tr
Nm
SR
Pr
Wt
02II
SCR 200
0300 300(m)
000000180 180 Credits.png
0040 40(kg)
04IV
SCR 210
0370 370(m)
00001 980 1 980 Credits.png
0080 80(kg)
09IX
SCR 506
0700 700(m)
00033 600 33 600 Credits.png
0110 110(kg)

Historical Info

M3 Lee tank, June 1942, Fort Knox

The Medium Tank M3 was an American tank used during World War II. In Britain the tank was called "General Lee", named after Confederate General Robert E. Lee, and the modified version built with a new turret was called the "General Grant", named after U.S. General Ulysses S. Grant. Design commenced in July 1940, and the first "Lees" were operational in late 1941. The U.S. Army needed a good tank and coupled with Great Britain's demand for 3,650 medium tanks immediately, the Lee began production by late 1940. The M3 was well armed and armored for the period, but due to design flaws (high silhouette, archaic sponson mounting of the main gun, below average off-road performance) it was not satisfactory and was withdrawn from front line duty as soon as the M4 Sherman became available in large numbers.



Development history

Chrysler tank arsenal. Workers in the huge tank Chrysler arsenal near Detroit, putting the tracks on one of the giant M-3 tanks.

In 1939, the U.S. Army possessed approximately 400 tanks, mostly M2 light tanks, with less than a hundred of the discontinued M2 medium tanks. The U.S. funded tank development poorly during the interwar years, and had no infrastructure for production, little experience in design, and poor doctrine to guide design efforts. The M2 series medium tank was typical of AFVs many nations produced in 1939. When the U.S. entered the war, the M2 design was obsolete with a 37 mm gun, 32 mm frontal armor, machine gun main armament, and a very-high silhouette. The Panzer III and Panzer IV's success in the French campaign led the U.S. Army to immediately order a new medium tank armed with a 75 mm gun in a turret. This would be the M4 Sherman. However, until the Sherman was in production, an interim design with a 75 mm gun was urgently needed. The M3 was the solution. The design was unusual because the main weapon; a larger caliber, low-velocity 75 mm gun, was in an offset sponson mounted in the hull with limited traverse. A small turret with a lighter, high-velocity 37 mm gun sat on the tall hull. A small cupola on top of the turret held a machine gun. The use of two main guns was seen on the French Char B, the Soviet T-35, and the Mark I version of the British Churchill tank. In each case, two weapons were mounted to give the tanks adequate capability in firing both anti-personnel high explosive ammunition and armor-piercing ammunition for anti-tank combat. The M3 differed slightly from this pattern having a main gun which could fire an armor-piercing projectile at a velocity high enough for efficiently piercing armor, as well as deliver a high-explosive shell that was large enough to be effective. Using a hull-mounted gun, the M3 design was produced quicker than if a turret mount gun had been manufactured. It was understood that the M3's design was flawed, but Britain urgently needed tanks. The M3 was tall and roomy: the power transmission ran through the crew compartment under the turret cage to the gearbox driving the front sprockets. Steering was by differential braking, with a turning circle of 37 ft (11 m). The vertical volute suspension units included a return roller made with self-contained and readily replaced units bolted to the chassis. The turret was power-traversed by an electro-hydraulic system: an electric motor providing the pressure for the hydraulic motor. This rotated the turret fully in 15 seconds. Control was from a spade grip on the gun. The same motor provided pressure for the gun stabilizing system. The 75-mm was operated by a gunner and a loader. Sighting the 75-mm gun used an M1 periscope, with an integral telescope, on the top of the sponson. The periscope rotated with the gun. The sight was marked from zero to 3,000 yd (2,700 m) with vertical markings to aid deflection shooting at a moving target. The gunner laid the gun on target through geared handwheels for traverse and elevation. The 37-mm was aimed through the M2 periscope, though this was mounted in the mantlet to the side of the gun. It also sighted the coaxial machine gun. Two range scales were provided: 0-1,500 yd (1,400 m) for the 37-mm and 0-1,000 yd (910 m) for the machine gun.

The British ordered the M3 when they were refused permission to have their tank designs (the Matilda infantry tank and Crusader cruiser tank) made by American factories. British experts had viewed the mock-up in 1940 and identified several flaws; the high profile, the hull-mounted gun, radio in the hull, smooth tracks, and the amount of armor with insufficient attention to splash-proofing the joints. The British agreed to order 1,250 M3s, to be modified to their requirements. The order was subsequently increased with the expectation that when a superior tank was available it, could replace part of the order. Contracts were arranged with three U.S. companies, but the total cost was approximately 240 million US dollars. This sum was all of the British funds in the US and it took the Lend-Lease act to solve the financial problems.
M3 Lee front view, June 1942, at Fort Knox

The prototype was completed in March 1941 and production models followed with the first British specification tanks in July. The British cast turret included a bustle at the back for the Wireless Set No. 19 radio. It had thicker armor than the U.S. one and removed the U.S. cupola for a simple hatch. Both U.S. and British tanks had thicker armor than first planned. The British design required one fewer crew member than the US version due to the radio in the turret. The U.S. eventually eliminated the full-time radio operator, assigning the task to the driver. The British realized that to meet their requirement for tanks, both types would be needed. The U.S. military utilized the "M" (Model) letter to designate nearly all of their equipment. When the British Army received their new M3 medium tanks from the US, confusion immediately set in, as the M3 medium tank and the M3 light tank were identically named. The British army began naming their American tanks, although the U.S. Army never used those terms until after the war. The M3 tanks with the new turret and radio setup received the name "General Grant", while the original M3s were called "General Lee", or more usually just "Grant" and "Lee". The M3 brought much-needed firepower to British forces in the African desert campaign. The chassis and running gear of the M3 design was adapted by the Canadians for their Ram tank. The hull of the M3 was also used for self-propelled artillery and recovery vehicles.

Combat history

European and Mediterranean Theaters

M3 Lee evaluated after being destroyed in battle

Of the 6,258 M3s produced by the U.S., 2,855 M3s were supplied to the British army, and about 1,368 to the Soviet Union. Consequently, one of the American M3 medium tank's first actions during the war was in 1942, during the North African Campaign. British Lees and Grants were in action against Rommel's forces at the disastrous Battle of Gazala on 27 May that year. They continued to serve in North Africa until the end of that campaign. A regiment of M3 Mediums was also used by the U.S. 1st Armored Division in North Africa. In the North African campaign, the M3 was generally appreciated for it's mechanical reliability, good armor, and heavy firepower. In all three areas, it outclassed the available British tanks and was able to fight German tanks and towed anti-tank guns. The tall silhouette and low, hull-mounted 75-mm were severe tactical drawbacks, since they prevented the tank from fighting from hull-down firing positions. The use of riveted armor led to a problem called "spalling," whereby the impact of enemy shells would cause the rivets to break off and become projectiles inside the tank. Later models were welded to eliminate this problem. The M3 was replaced by the M4 Sherman as soon as these were available, though several M3s saw limited action in the battle for Normandy as armored recovery vehicles with dummy guns. Over 1,300 diesel-engined M3A3 and M3A5s were supplied to the USSR via lend-lease in 1942-1943. All were the Lee variants, although they are sometimes referred to generically as Grants. The M3 was unpopular in the Red Army, where it's faults were shown up in engagements with enemy armor and anti-tank weapons, with the Soviets bestowing it the nickname of "coffin for seven brothers." Few were seen in combat after about mid-1943, though some M3s were used on the Arctic Front in the Red Army's offensive on the Litsa front towards Kirkenes in October 1944. The Germans had, on this front, only a relatively-few obsolete French Hotchkiss tanks that they had acquired during their occupation, consequently the M3's inferior tank-to-tank capabilities were of limited importance.

Pacific and China-Burma-India Theaters

M3 Lee medium tank, Fort Knox. Maintenance of mechanized equipment.

The Pacific War was an ocean war fought primarily by the naval fleets of the U.S. and the Empire of Japan. Tank warfare would play a secondary role, the primary battles being between warships. Within the Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO), the U.S. Marine Corps deployed all six of it's tank battalions; the U.S. Army deployed only a third of it's 70 separate tank battalions, and none of it's armored divisions, in the Pacific. During the battle for Tarawa island in 1943, the U.S. Army attacked nearby Makin Island, which was considered a less-,costly operation. The army was supported by a platoon of M3A5 Lee medium tanks from the U.S. Army's 193rd Tank Battalion, making this battle the only U.S. Army combat use of the M3 in the Pacific Theater. No M3s were supplied to the U.S. Marine Corps. When the British received their new M4 Shermans from America, it quickly transferred approximately 1,700 M3s to the China-Burma-India (CBI) theater, deploying about 800 M3s to Australian forces and about 900 M3 tanks to Indian forces. British Lees and Grants were used by the British Fourteenth Army from the fall of Rangoon, performing admirably until the end of the war. In the Far East, the M3's main task was infantry support. It played a pivotal role during the Battle of Imphal, during which the Imperial Japanese Army's 14th Tank Regiment (consisting of mostly captured British M3 Stuart light tanks and their own Type 95 light tanks) encountered M3 medium tanks for the first time. Despite their lower-than-average off-road performance, the M3s performed well as they traversed the steep hillsides around Imphal. Declared obsolete in April 1944, the General Lee fought on against Japan until the end of the war. In the end, the M3 in the CBI theater performed the mission it's original designers had intended it to do: that of supporting the infantry.

Overview

Overall, the M3 was able to cope with the battlefield of 1942. It's armor and firepower were the equal or superior to most of the threats it faced. Long-range, high velocity guns were not yet common on German tanks. However, the rapid pace of tank development meant that the M3 was very quickly outclassed. By mid-1943, with the introduction of the German Panthers andTigers, the up-gunning of the Panzer IV to a long 75-mm gun, and the availability of large numbers of Shermans, the M3 was withdrawn from service in the European Theater.



American Tanks
Light Tanks T1 Cunningham  • M2 Light Tank  • T1E6  • T2 Light Tank  • T7 Combat Car  • M22 Locust  • M3 Stuart  • MTLS-1G14  • M5 Stuart  • M24 Chaffee  • T21  • T71
Medium Tanks T2 Medium Tank  • M2 Medium Tank  • M3 Lee  • M4 Sherman  • M4A2E4 Sherman  • M7  • Ram II  • M4A3E2 Sherman Jumbo  • M4A3E8 Sherman  • T20  • M26 Pershing  • T23  • T26E4 Super Pershing  • T69  • M46 Patton  • T54E1  • M48A1 Patton  • M60
Heavy Tanks T1 Heavy Tank  • T14  • M6  • T29  • M6A2E1  • T32  • T34  • M103  • T57 Heavy Tank  • T110E5
Tank Destroyers T18  • T82  • M8A1  • T40  • M10 Wolverine  • T49  • M18 Hellcat  • M36 Jackson  • T25 AT  • T25/2  • T28  • T28 Prototype  • T30  • T95  • T110E3  • T110E4
Self-Propelled Guns T57  • M7 Priest  • M37  • M41  • M44  • M12  • M40/M43  • M53/M55  • T92



Medium Tanks
USA II T2 Medium Tank  • III M2 Medium Tank  • IV T6 Medium  • IV M3 Lee  • V M4 Improved  Gold  • V M4A2E4 Sherman  Gold  • V M4A1 Sherman  • V Ram II  Gold  • VI M4A3E8 Fury  Gold  • VI M4A3E8 Thunderbolt VII  Gold  • VI M4A3E8 Sherman  • VI M4A3E2 Sherman Jumbo  • VII T26E3 Eagle 7  Gold  • VII T20  • VII T23E3  Gold  • VIII T25 Pilot Number 1  Gold  • VIII TL-1 LPC  Gold  • VIII T77  Gold  • VIII M46 Patton KR  Gold  • VIII M26 Pershing  • VIII T26E4 SuperPershing  Gold  • VIII T69  • VIII T95E2  Gold  • IX M46 Patton  • X M48A5 Patton  • X M60  Gold  • X T95E6  Gold
UK I Vickers Medium Mk. I  • II Vickers Medium Mk. II  • III Vickers Medium Mk. III  • IV Matilda  • IV Grant  • IV AC 1 Sentinel  Gold  • V Cavalier  • V Valiant  Gold  • V Sherman III  • V Matilda Black Prince  Gold  • VI Sherman Firefly  • VI Cromwell  • VI AC 4 Experimental  Gold  • VI Cromwell B  Gold  • VI Sherman VC Firefly  Gold  • VII Comet  • VIII Centurion Mk. I  • VIII FV4202  Gold  • VIII Chieftain/T95  Gold  • VIII Centurion Mk. 5/1 RAAC  Gold  • VIII Chimera  Gold  • IX Centurion Mk. 7/1  • X Centurion Action X
Germany III Großtraktor - Krupp  Gold  • III Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. A  • III Pz.Kpfw. S35 739 (f)  Gold  • IV Pz.Kpfw. III Ausf. J  • IV Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. D  • IV VK 20.01 (D)  • V Pz.Kpfw. III Ausf. K  Gold  • V Turán III prototípus  Gold  • V Pz.Kpfw. III/IV  • V Pz.Kpfw. IV hydrostat.  Gold  • V Pz.Kpfw. V/IV  Gold  • V Pz.Kpfw. V/IV Alpha  Gold  • V Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. H  • V Pz.Kpfw. T 25  Gold  • V VK 30.01 (H)  • VI Pz.Kpfw. IV Schmalturm  Gold  • VI VK 30.01 (D)  • VI VK 30.02 (M)  • VII Panther/M10  Gold  • VII Panther  • VII VK 30.02 (D)  • VIII Panther mit 8,8 cm L/71  Gold  • VIII Panzer 58  Gold  • VIII Schwarzpanzer 58  Gold  • VIII Panzer 58 Mutz  Gold  • VIII M48A2 Räumpanzer  Gold  • VIII Indien-Panzer  • VIII Panther II  • IX E 50  • IX T 55A  Gold  • IX Kampfpanzer 50 t  Gold  • IX Leopard Prototyp A  • X E 50 Ausf. M  • X Leopard 1
France III D2  • III Somua S35  • IV SARL 42  • V Renault G1  • VI Bretagne Panther  Gold  • VIII Bat.-Châtillon Bourrasque  Gold  • VIII Lorraine 40 t  Gold  • VIII AMX Chasseur de chars  Gold  • VIII M4A1 Revalorisé  Gold  • IX AMX 30 1er prototype  • IX Char Futur 4  Gold  • IX Bat.-Châtillon 25 t AP  • X Bat.-Châtillon 25 t  • X AMX 30 B
USSR III T-29  Gold  • IV A-32  Gold  • IV T-28E with F-30  Gold  • IV T-28  • V Matilda IV  Gold  • V T-34 shielded  Gold  • V T-34  • VI A-43  • VI T-34-85M  Gold  • VI T-34-85 Rudy  Gold  • VI Loza's M4-A2 Sherman  Gold  • VI T-34-85  • VII A-44  • VII KV-13  • VII T-43  • VII T-44-122  Gold  • VIII Object 416  • VIII T-54 first prototype  Gold  • VIII T-44-100 (B)  Gold  • VIII T-44-100 (K)  Gold  • VIII T-44-100 (R)  Gold  • VIII T-44-100 (U)  Gold  • VIII STG  Gold  • VIII STG Guard  Gold  • VIII T-44  • IX Object 430 Version II  • IX Object 430  • IX T-54  • X Object 140  • X Object 907  Gold  • X T-22 medium  Gold  • X K-91  • X Object 430U  • X T-62A
China V Type T-34  • VI Type 58  • VII T-34-1  • VIII Type 59  Gold  • VIII T-34-2  • VIII T-34-3  Gold  • VIII 59-Patton  Gold  • VIII Type 59 G  Gold  • IX WZ-120  • X 121  • X 121B  Gold
Japan II Chi-Ni  • II Type 89 I-Go/Chi-Ro  • IV Type 1 Chi-He  • V Type 3 Chi-Nu  • V Type 3 Chi-Nu Kai  Gold  • VI Type 4 Chi-To  • VII Type 5 Chi-Ri  • VIII STA-1  • VIII STA-2  Gold  • IX Type 61  • X STB-1
Czechoslovakia IV ST vz. 39  • V Škoda T 24  • VI Škoda T 40  Gold  • VI Škoda T 25  • VII Konštrukta T-34/100  • VIII TVP VTU Koncept  • VIII Škoda T 27  Gold  • IX Škoda T 50  • X TVP T 50/51
Sweden IV Lago  • V Strv m/42  • VI Strv m/42-57 Alt A.2  Gold  • VI Strv 74  • VII Leo  • VIII Strv 81  Gold  • VIII Primo Victoria  Gold  • VIII Lansen C  Gold  • VIII UDES 14 Alt 5  • IX UDES 16  • X UDES 15/16
Poland V 25TP KSUST II  • V DS PZInż  • VI Pudel  Gold  • VI 40TP Habicha  • VI T-34-85 Rudy  Gold  • VI B.U.G.I.  • VII CS-44  • VIII CS-52  Gold  • VIII CS-53  • IX CS-59  • X CS-63