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Version du 9 avril 2011 à 07:35Version du 19 avril 2011 à 20:43
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 Many countries thus used howitzers as a relatively simple way to increase tank firepower against soft target, to be used in assault guns and close support tanks. Because such vehicles had only a limited use against tanks, they were usually attached to tank units as support only, or concentrated in specialised units. Many countries thus used howitzers as a relatively simple way to increase tank firepower against soft target, to be used in assault guns and close support tanks. Because such vehicles had only a limited use against tanks, they were usually attached to tank units as support only, or concentrated in specialised units.
 Typical examples: 105mm M4 Howitzer, 10.5cm Sturmhaubitze, 122mm M-30S. Typical examples: 105mm M4 Howitzer, 10.5cm Sturmhaubitze, 122mm M-30S.
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 +{{panel content|title=Ammunition|content=
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 +'''AP''' - ''Armor Piercing'', ammunition type dedicated to penetrating enemy armor and thus disabling a tank. Often used as blanket term covering all various kinetic energy full-bore projectiles, "classic" AP shot was made of solid metal with no filler nor composite structure, relying only on its mass to penetrate and do sufficient damage to the enemy tank. While most WWII countries used ''APHE'', the United Kingdom preferred to use solid shot and while theoretically tests showed some difference in the internal damage of target tank, in real condition it usually did not matter.
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 +'''APBC''' - ''Armor Piercing, Ballistic Cap'', variant of ''AP''/''APHE''. Penetratiojn-optimised shape of AP projectile was not the most aerodynamic, especially with blunt-nosed projectiles (such as 122mm BR-471B). To improve aerodynamics and thus long-range stability, ballistic cap from a light metal was added to the projectile.
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 +'''APC''' - ''Armor Piercing, Capped'', ammunition type designed for better penetration of face-hardened armor. Shell nose was covered with a soft cap that deformed upon impact, distributing energy to larder part of the shell so the nose did not shatter. APC shells often showed less penetration against homogenous armor, but performed better against hardened one. Cap also, in some cases, eased penetration of sloped armor.
 +
 +'''APCBC''' - ''Armor Piercing, Capped, Ballistic Cap'' - combining ''APC'' and ''APBC'' advantages, APCBC provided both long-range stability of APBC and good perdormance vs. hard armor of APC. Used by most armies of WWII except for the USSR, where APBC with blunt-nosed penetrator was preferred.
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 +'''APCR''' - ''Armor Piercing, Composite, Rigid'', basic ''subcaliber'' armor-piercing ammunition. APCR body consisted of a penetrator, with significantly smaller diameter than the bore, and of light metal casing around it, to fill up the bore. The light metal part was non-detacheable. Lighter mass gave the projectile higher muzzle velocity and higher penetration, however small sectional density gave by light weight, but full bore diameter, caused high drag and APCR lost velocity rapidly. APCR was used by all major players in WWII.
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 +'''APCNR''' - ''Armor Piercing, Composite, Non-Rigid'', British designation for ''APSB''.
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 +'''APDS''' - ''Armor Piercing, Discarding Sabot'', evolution of APCR projectiles. The main difference was that upon leaving the muzzle, lightweight sabot fell off the projectile and only the subcaliber penetrating core continued towards the target. this solved the drag issues of APCR, even though it required higher degree of accuracy during production. First massively used by British 6pdr and 17pdr guns, early APDS witnessed accuracy problems.
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 +'''APHE''' - ''Armor Piercing, High Explosive'', ''AP'' shell with a small HE filler to enhance damage after penetration. Theoretically sound, HE often failed to ignite and cavity for HE often compromised the structural integrity of projectile.
 +Usually only ''AP'' is used, as most armies used APHE and it was rather pointless to distinguish between the two types.
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 +'''APFSDS''' - ''Armor Piercing, Fin-Stabillised, Discarding Sabot'', further development of ''APDS''. Not fitting in the WoT timeframe.
 +
 +'''APSB''' - ''Armor Piercing, Squeeze-Bore'', ammunition for conical/squeezebore/taper-bore guns. A penetrator is surrounded by a jacket of light, soft metal, which is squeezed by the conical portion of gun bore. this served to achieve very high muzzle velocities - comparable with APCR or APDS - while reducing the main problem of APCR, ie high drag. However it also presented large problems with gun barrel wear, as the conical part was hard to produce and had to be replaced very often. This, along with need for rare metals for the ammunition and with serious limit of other uses of the gun due to difficulties with HE ammunition, lead to suspension of the concept except specialised units, where light weight was critical, such as German 28mm sPzB.41 or British Littlejohn adapter for 2 pdr gun.
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 +'''CP''' - ''Concrete Penetrating'', shell designed to destroy fortifications. Usually a mix between ''HE'' and ''AP'', it had a thick casing to ensure penetration, but also significantly larger HE charge than ''APHE'' shell. Usually used with guns of 150mm and larger, CP chells were for example used by KV-2 tanks instead of AP, as they were on hand in Naval depots.
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 +'''HE'''
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 +'''HEAT'''
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 +'''HEDP'''
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 +'''HE-F'''
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 +'''HESH'''
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 +'''HC'''
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 +'''Hl.Gr.'''
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 +'''HVAP''
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 +'''Pz.Gr.'''
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 +'''SAP'''
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 +'''Shrapnel'''
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 +'''Spr.Gr.'''
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 +'''Subcaliber'''
  
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Version du 19 avril 2011 à 20:43

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