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Version du 19 avril 2011 à 20:43Version du 22 avril 2011 à 10:21
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 '''Gun, Close Support''' - Based on the WWI experience, tanks were supposed to provide close support to attacking infantry. For that purpose, it was important to have a relatively large-caliber weapon (to get a good HE payload), but muzzle velocity was not as crucial. Thus, on the beginning of the war, most countries employed fire support tanks with a low-velocity gun or howitzer. French army even based the entire doctrine around this concept. '''Gun, Close Support''' - Based on the WWI experience, tanks were supposed to provide close support to attacking infantry. For that purpose, it was important to have a relatively large-caliber weapon (to get a good HE payload), but muzzle velocity was not as crucial. Thus, on the beginning of the war, most countries employed fire support tanks with a low-velocity gun or howitzer. French army even based the entire doctrine around this concept.
 Close support guns came usually in calibers from 37mm to 76mm, with rather short barrels (around 20 calibers or even less) and low muzzle velocity. Due to rapid advances in armor protection, they became obsolete very quickly and armies still using them had to deploy HEAT shells with them to keep them atleast marginally useful in combat against other armored targets. Close support guns came usually in calibers from 37mm to 76mm, with rather short barrels (around 20 calibers or even less) and low muzzle velocity. Due to rapid advances in armor protection, they became obsolete very quickly and armies still using them had to deploy HEAT shells with them to keep them atleast marginally useful in combat against other armored targets.
?Typical examples: 75mm KwK 37+Typical examples: 75mm L/24 KwK 37
  
 '''Gun, Conical''' - Usually referred to as taper-bore or squeezebore gun, it was a special category of anti-tank guns designed to provide high penetration without the use of special (and expensive) materials such as tungsten carbide, as well as to remove range limitations of APCR projectiles. Taper-bore guns used barrel with changing diameter, from original caliber to significantly smaller one, thus reducing the cross-section and drag of the projectile to extend its effective range. '''Gun, Conical''' - Usually referred to as taper-bore or squeezebore gun, it was a special category of anti-tank guns designed to provide high penetration without the use of special (and expensive) materials such as tungsten carbide, as well as to remove range limitations of APCR projectiles. Taper-bore guns used barrel with changing diameter, from original caliber to significantly smaller one, thus reducing the cross-section and drag of the projectile to extend its effective range.
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 '''CP''' - ''Concrete Penetrating'', shell designed to destroy fortifications. Usually a mix between ''HE'' and ''AP'', it had a thick casing to ensure penetration, but also significantly larger HE charge than ''APHE'' shell. Usually used with guns of 150mm and larger, CP chells were for example used by KV-2 tanks instead of AP, as they were on hand in Naval depots. '''CP''' - ''Concrete Penetrating'', shell designed to destroy fortifications. Usually a mix between ''HE'' and ''AP'', it had a thick casing to ensure penetration, but also significantly larger HE charge than ''APHE'' shell. Usually used with guns of 150mm and larger, CP chells were for example used by KV-2 tanks instead of AP, as they were on hand in Naval depots.
  
?'''HE'''+'''HC''' - ''High Capacity'' HE shells were usually developped for heavy artillery and naval guns, for use against hardened targets. Many designation systems however did not distinguish between ''HC'' and standard shells.
  
?'''HEAT'''+'''HE''' - ''High Explosive'', generally used term for any shell whose primary damage mechanism comes from an explosion of its charge, as opposed to kinetic damage done by AP shells. There are multiple kinds of HE projectile, the most often used is probably ''HE-Frag''. In its basic sense, pure HE shell would have only thin walls and would create little fragmentation, relying on blast to do the damage - thus, HE shells were often designed against hardened positions etc. However, practice showed that HE-Frag can be almost as effective as pure HE, while having more effect against soft targets, and as He-Frag took over the role, it took over the designation as well.
 + 
 +'''HE-Frag''' - ''High Explosive-Fragmentation'' shells carry less explosive than pure ''HE'', but their thicker shell casing allows for higher muzzle velocities and creates more fragments. Modern HE-Frag often use pre-fragmented shell casing to increase effect in the target zone.
 + 
 +'''HEAT''' - ''High Explosive, Anti-Tank'', armor-piercign projectiles using hollow charge effect. Cup-shaped charge forms a thin jet of gases or of HEAT liner material, that travels at very high velocity. Contrary to kinetic energy AP, HEAT maintains the same penetration regardless of the shell velocity, so it was a popular choice for low-velocity guns and howitzers. However, WWII HEAT was often prone to failure and had usually short range. On the other hand it was cheap to produce - by the war's end, Geman tanks often carried a significant portion of their ammunition load in HEAT, replaing both AP and HE shells.
  
 '''HEDP''' '''HEDP'''
  
?'''HE-F'''+'''HEP'''
  
 '''HESH''' '''HESH'''
  
?'''HC'''+'''Hl.Gr.''' - ''Hohlladunggranate'', German designation for ''HEAT''.
? +
?'''Hl.Gr.'''+
  
?'''HVAP''+'''HVAP''' - ''High Velocity Armor Piercing'', US designation for ''APCR'' projectiles.
  
?'''Pz.Gr.'''+'''Pz.Gr.''' - ''Panzergranate'', German designation of kinetic energy (''AP'') projectiles. Usual designation for most frequently used shells was PzGr.39 (''APCBC'') and PzGr.40 (''APCR'').
  
 '''SAP''' '''SAP'''

Version du 22 avril 2011 à 10:21

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