Wargaming.net 위키에 오신 것을 환영합니다!
변수
/
Gunnery & Armor Penetration (WoT)

"Gunnery & Armor Penetration (WoT)"의 두 판 사이의 차이

이동: 둘러보기, 검색
2020년 1월 11일 (토) 11:53 판2020년 1월 11일 (토) 12:03 판
1번째 줄:1번째 줄:
 __TOC__ __TOC__
 ==Aiming== ==Aiming==
?[[image:Ico_gun_alpha.png|left|{name}|link=]] 
 대미지를 줄 수있는 수단이다  대미지를 줄 수있는 수단이다
?[#Accuracy_and_Dispersion|에 대한 섹션을 반드시 읽으십시오.정확도 및 분산]]]. 
? 
? 
?=== 자동 조준 === 
?자동 조준(Automatic Aiming) 또는 자동 임무는 탱크의 중심 아래 약간을 겨냥한다. 조준된 부분이 가장 두꺼운 부분일수도 있다. 그 말인즉 당신의 의도와는 다르게 대미지를 줄수 없을 수도 있다. 그것은 당신으로부터 아주 멀리 떨어져 있는 경장갑 탱크를 조준하는 데 유용할 뿐이고, 본인의 차량에서 가까운 거리의 적을 조준할때 정확하게 적을 조준하기 보다는 회피에 집중해야 되지만, 회피에 집중하는 동시에 사격도 가능해질수있다. 자동 조준은 사격이 가능해진다. 자동조준은 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 누르면 적용되고 키보드 E키나 오른쪽 클릭으로 해제 할 수 있다. 
? 
?자동 조준은 돌이나 집, 아군 탱크 뒤에 있더라도 시야가 지워지지 않는 한 시야에 보이는 한 계속 자동조준을 지정한 목표를 겨냥할 것이라는 점에 유의해야 한다. 자동조준은 앞서 말한 상황에서 그것을 맞출 수 없을 수 도 있다 - 당연한 말을 하는 것처럼 들리지만, 신규유저들이 실수하는 것 들이다. 
? 
?=== 수동 조준 === 
?보통의 경우 자동조준에 의존하기보다는 수동으로 주포를 조준하는 것이 좋지만 고려해야 할 몇 가지 경우가 있다. 게임의 모든 포탄은 고유의 궤적과 탄속이 있고, 수동 조준을 하면서 고려해야할 수치가 많지만, 인 게임은 이러한 정보를 알려주지 않기 때문에 많은 경험을 해보는것이 좋다.  
? 
?==== 3인칭 시점 ==== 
?3인칭 시점 전투의 기본 시점. 카메라를 포탑 위와 뒤에 놓는 3인칭 시점이다. 당신의 목표는 당신의 시점을 따른다. 이 시점은 건물 옆에 있는 유저들에게 혼란스러울 수 있다. 왜냐하면 높은 시야 기준이 주포를 장애물에 가리게 하기 때문이다. 
? 
?==== 저격 시점 ==== 
?저격 시점은 기본적으로 주포를 통해 앞의 적을 보게 해주며 왼쪽 Shift 키를 누르거나 마우스 휠을 이용 하여 줌을 하고 풀 수 있다. 시점이 다르기 때문에 이 시점은 건물이나 다른 각도에서 접근할때 조준 문제를 일으키지 않는다. 
? 
?이 조준의 장점은 대상을 좀 더 크게 볼 수 있다는 점이 있다. 하지만 터널 시야를 조심 해야 하고, 터널 시야 동안 본인의 시야에서 벗어나 후방으로 침투하는 적을 조심해야 한다. 
? 
?==== 관통 표시기 ==== 
?관통 표시기는 조준선의 주표 표시기에 대한 옵션이며, 기본적으로 적용되어 있으며, 이 옵션은 사용자가 조준한 위치에 장전한 탄이 장갑을 관통할 수 있는지 여부를 확인 하는데 도움을 주는 용도로 사용 할 수 있다. 빨간색 표시기는 그 위치의 장갑을 관통할 수 없다는 것을 알려주고, 노란색 표시기는 대상의 장갑 두께가 당신의 관통력의 -/+25% 범위 안에 있다는 것을 의미하며(35~75확률), 녹색 표시기는 모든 경우에 당신의 광통력이 목표의 장갑 두께를 초과한다는 것을 의미한다. 
? 
?관통 표시기가 대상의 약점을 발견하는 데 있어 매우 귀중한 도구인 반면, 항상 그 한계를 생각해야 한다. 이것은 목표점을 따라 정상적인 대상의 장갑 두께와 당신의 침투 등급을 단순하게 비교한 것이며 경사각을 고려하지 않기 때문에 녹색 관통 가능점이 뜨더라도 당신의 사격은 여전히 도탄 비탄 으로 타겟의 유효 장갑 두께를 관통하지 못할 수 있다. 
? 
? 
?==== 예측 사격 ==== 
?[[파일:400px-Tactics movingTarget|400px|thumbnail|right]] 
?만약 적 전차가 당신에게 수평 또는 수직으로 움직인다면, 당신의 조준점을 수동으로 조정해야 한다. 이것을 표적을 예측(leading)라고 부르기도 한다. 탄의 비행 속도를 고려하여, 탄의 궤적이 표적의 움직임과 전차의 교차지점을 고려해야 한다. 예를 들어, 탄이 평탄한 궤적으로 1000m/s를 비행하는 경우(예: [Pz]의 8.8cm KwK 43 L/71 "장포신88"에서 발사되는 AP 쉘).Kpfw. VI Tiger]]]))])) 그리고 당신의 목표는 500m 떨어져 있고, 당신의 껍데기는 그것에 도달하는 데 거의 반초도 걸리지 않는다. 목표물이 72km/h에서 수직으로 움직이는 [[M18 Hellcat]일 경우, 즉 20m/s에서 이론적으로 앞에 10m를 조준하여 타격해야 한다. 
? 
?그러나 이것은 온라인 게임이고 현실이 아니기 때문에 네트워크 지연 시간, 즉 '핑'도 고려해야 한다. 500ms ping(극히 높은 ping)으로 플레이하고 있다면 0.5초 정도 더 움직이면 과녁을 리드할 수 있을 것이다. 이 예에서, 당신은 당신의 리드를 두 배로 늘리고 목표물 앞에서 20m를 조준해야 한다([#Latency Correction| 참조).지연 시간 보정]]] 아래).  
? 
?고속탄을 사용하는 주포는 앞서 말한것이 쉽지만,[T82]의 105 mm AT Howitzer M3와 같은 저속 포로는 훨씬 더 힘 들어진다. 그것은 311m/s의 속도로 비행하는 HE 포탄을 매우 높은 궤도로 발사한다. 즉, 그들은 멀리 떨어진 목표물에 도달하는 데 몇 초가 걸릴 수 있다. 그런 주포로 목표를 리드해야할 거리는 속도에 따라 크게 증가한다. 당연히, 목표가 회피기동을 하면 예측 사격을 하기에 필요한 거리는 어떻게 될지 모른다. 
? 
?==== 탄도 궤적 ==== 
?조준기는 탄도 궤적을 고려하기 때문에 눈에 보이는 목표물(빨간색 윤곽)을 맴도는 동안 자동으로 약간 더 높게 보정할 것이다. 그러나 목표물을 조준점에서 멀어지게 되는 순간 이 자동보정은 사라진다. 이것은 위에서 설명한 대로 움직이는 대상을 예측 사격 할때 고려하는 것이 중요하다. 목표에 대한 궤적을 스스로 보정해야 하기 때문이다. 수정해야 할 정도를 쉽게 알 수 있는 방법은 먼저 조준기를 목표물 위에 올려놓고 목표물의 높이를 가늠한 다음 이끄는 동안 동일한 높이를 목표로 하는 것이다. 그렇게 하는 동안, 조준기는 당신의 목표가 지형이나 물체에 엄폐할 수 있기 때문에, 그런 상황이 발생한다면 당신은 그것 또한 보정할 필요가 있다.  
? 
?==== 조준선un_alpha.png|left|{name}|link=]] 
?대미지를 줄 수있는 수단이다  
?[#Accuracy_and_Dispersion|에 대한 섹션을 반드시 읽으십시오.정확도 및 분산]]]. 
? 
? 
 === 자동 조준 === === 자동 조준 ===
 자동 조준(Automatic Aiming) 또는 자동 임무는 탱크의 중심 아래 약간을 겨냥한다. 조준된 부분이 가장 두꺼운 부분일수도 있다. 그 말인즉 당신의 의도와는 다르게 대미지를 줄수 없을 수도 있다. 그것은 당신으로부터 아주 멀리 떨어져 있는 경장갑 탱크를 조준하는 데 유용할 뿐이고, 본인의 차량에서 가까운 거리의 적을 조준할때 정확하게 적을 조준하기 보다는 회피에 집중해야 되지만, 회피에 집중하는 동시에 사격도 가능해질수있다. 자동 조준은 사격이 가능해진다. 자동조준은 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 누르면 적용되고 키보드 E키나 오른쪽 클릭으로 해제 할 수 있다. 자동 조준(Automatic Aiming) 또는 자동 임무는 탱크의 중심 아래 약간을 겨냥한다. 조준된 부분이 가장 두꺼운 부분일수도 있다. 그 말인즉 당신의 의도와는 다르게 대미지를 줄수 없을 수도 있다. 그것은 당신으로부터 아주 멀리 떨어져 있는 경장갑 탱크를 조준하는 데 유용할 뿐이고, 본인의 차량에서 가까운 거리의 적을 조준할때 정확하게 적을 조준하기 보다는 회피에 집중해야 되지만, 회피에 집중하는 동시에 사격도 가능해질수있다. 자동 조준은 사격이 가능해진다. 자동조준은 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 누르면 적용되고 키보드 E키나 오른쪽 클릭으로 해제 할 수 있다.

2020년 1월 11일 (토) 12:03 판

Aiming

대미지를 줄 수있는 수단이다

자동 조준

자동 조준(Automatic Aiming) 또는 자동 임무는 탱크의 중심 아래 약간을 겨냥한다. 조준된 부분이 가장 두꺼운 부분일수도 있다. 그 말인즉 당신의 의도와는 다르게 대미지를 줄수 없을 수도 있다. 그것은 당신으로부터 아주 멀리 떨어져 있는 경장갑 탱크를 조준하는 데 유용할 뿐이고, 본인의 차량에서 가까운 거리의 적을 조준할때 정확하게 적을 조준하기 보다는 회피에 집중해야 되지만, 회피에 집중하는 동시에 사격도 가능해질수있다. 자동 조준은 사격이 가능해진다. 자동조준은 마우스 오른쪽 버튼을 누르면 적용되고 키보드 E키나 오른쪽 클릭으로 해제 할 수 있다.

자동 조준은 돌이나 집, 아군 탱크 뒤에 있더라도 시야가 지워지지 않는 한 시야에 보이는 한 계속 자동조준을 지정한 목표를 겨냥할 것이라는 점에 유의해야 한다. 자동조준은 앞서 말한 상황에서 그것을 맞출 수 없을 수 도 있다 - 당연한 말을 하는 것처럼 들리지만, 신규유저들이 실수하는 것 들이다.

수동 조준

보통의 경우 자동조준에 의존하기보다는 수동으로 주포를 조준하는 것이 좋지만 고려해야 할 몇 가지 경우가 있다. 게임의 모든 포탄은 고유의 궤적과 탄속이 있고, 수동 조준을 하면서 고려해야할 수치가 많지만, 인 게임은 이러한 정보를 알려주지 않기 때문에 많은 경험을 해보는것이 좋다.

3인칭 시점

3인칭 시점 전투의 기본 시점. 카메라를 포탑 위와 뒤에 놓는 3인칭 시점이다. 당신의 목표는 당신의 시점을 따른다. 이 시점은 건물 옆에 있는 유저들에게 혼란스러울 수 있다. 왜냐하면 높은 시야 기준이 주포를 장애물에 가리게 하기 때문이다.

저격 시점

저격 시점은 기본적으로 주포를 통해 앞의 적을 보게 해주며 왼쪽 Shift 키를 누르거나 마우스 휠을 이용 하여 줌을 하고 풀 수 있다. 시점이 다르기 때문에 이 시점은 건물이나 다른 각도에서 접근할때 조준 문제를 일으키지 않는다.

이 조준의 장점은 대상을 좀 더 크게 볼 수 있다는 점이 있다. 하지만 터널 시야를 조심 해야 하고, 터널 시야 동안 본인의 시야에서 벗어나 후방으로 침투하는 적을 조심해야 한다.

관통 표시기

관통 표시기는 조준선의 주표 표시기에 대한 옵션이며, 기본적으로 적용되어 있으며, 이 옵션은 사용자가 조준한 위치에 장전한 탄이 장갑을 관통할 수 있는지 여부를 확인 하는데 도움을 주는 용도로 사용 할 수 있다. 빨간색 표시기는 그 위치의 장갑을 관통할 수 없다는 것을 알려주고, 노란색 표시기는 대상의 장갑 두께가 당신의 관통력의 -/+25% 범위 안에 있다는 것을 의미하며(35~75확률), 녹색 표시기는 모든 경우에 당신의 광통력이 목표의 장갑 두께를 초과한다는 것을 의미한다.

관통 표시기가 대상의 약점을 발견하는 데 있어 매우 귀중한 도구인 반면, 항상 그 한계를 생각해야 한다. 이것은 목표점을 따라 정상적인 대상의 장갑 두께와 당신의 침투 등급을 단순하게 비교한 것이며 경사각을 고려하지 않기 때문에 녹색 관통 가능점이 뜨더라도 당신의 사격은 여전히 도탄 비탄 으로 타겟의 유효 장갑 두께를 관통하지 못할 수 있다.

예측 사격

만약 적 전차가 당신에게 수평 또는 수직으로 움직인다면, 당신의 조준점을 수동으로 조정해야 한다. 이것을 표적을 예측(leading)라고 부르기도 한다. 탄의 비행 속도를 고려하여, 탄의 궤적이 표적의 움직임과 전차의 교차지점을 고려해야 한다. 예를 들어, 탄이 평탄한 궤적으로 1000m/s를 비행하는 경우(예: [Pz]의 8.8cm KwK 43 L/71 "장포신88"에서 발사되는 AP 쉘).Kpfw. VI Tiger]]]))])) 그리고 당신의 목표는 500m 떨어져 있고, 당신의 껍데기는 그것에 도달하는 데 거의 반초도 걸리지 않는다. 목표물이 72km/h에서 수직으로 움직이는 [[M18 Hellcat]일 경우, 즉 20m/s에서 이론적으로 앞에 10m를 조준하여 타격해야 한다.

그러나 이것은 온라인 게임이고 현실이 아니기 때문에 네트워크 지연 시간, 즉 '핑'도 고려해야 한다. 500ms ping(극히 높은 ping)으로 플레이하고 있다면 0.5초 정도 더 움직이면 과녁을 리드할 수 있을 것이다. 이 예에서, 당신은 당신의 리드를 두 배로 늘리고 목표물 앞에서 20m를 조준해야 한다([#Latency Correction| 참조).지연 시간 보정]]] 아래).

고속탄을 사용하는 주포는 앞서 말한것이 쉽지만,[T82]의 105 mm AT Howitzer M3와 같은 저속 포로는 훨씬 더 힘 들어진다. 그것은 311m/s의 속도로 비행하는 HE 포탄을 매우 높은 궤도로 발사한다. 즉, 그들은 멀리 떨어진 목표물에 도달하는 데 몇 초가 걸릴 수 있다. 그런 주포로 목표를 리드해야할 거리는 속도에 따라 크게 증가한다. 당연히, 목표가 회피기동을 하면 예측 사격을 하기에 필요한 거리는 어떻게 될지 모른다.

탄도 궤적

조준기는 탄도 궤적을 고려하기 때문에 눈에 보이는 목표물(빨간색 윤곽)을 맴도는 동안 자동으로 약간 더 높게 보정할 것이다. 그러나 목표물을 조준점에서 멀어지게 되는 순간 이 자동보정은 사라진다. 이것은 위에서 설명한 대로 움직이는 대상을 예측 사격 할때 고려하는 것이 중요하다. 목표에 대한 궤적을 스스로 보정해야 하기 때문이다. 수정해야 할 정도를 쉽게 알 수 있는 방법은 먼저 조준기를 목표물 위에 올려놓고 목표물의 높이를 가늠한 다음 이끄는 동안 동일한 높이를 목표로 하는 것이다. 그렇게 하는 동안, 조준기는 당신의 목표가 지형이나 물체에 엄폐할 수 있기 때문에, 그런 상황이 발생한다면 당신은 그것 또한 보정할 필요가 있다.

조준선과 실제 조준

탄도 궤도에 이은 포탄에도 불구하고 조준은 엄격히 조준선이다. 주포의 탄도 궤적이 실제로 목표물을 타격할 수 있지만, 그것은 지형적 특징에 의해 변동 되기 때문에, 당신이 목표물에 조준원을 정조준 시킬 수 없는 상황으로 이어질 수 있다. 이것은 특히 [T82]에 있는 것과 같이 높은 곡사의 궤적을 가진 하위츠 총에서 두드러진다. 목표를 자동으로 수정하기 때문에 그러한 상황에서 목표을 조준하는 것은 매우 까다로울 수 있지만, 다음과 같은 몇 가지 고려 사항이 있다.

  • 저격 시점은 가장 낮은 시점(총 마운트)을 가지므로 표적이 고도 뒤에 있고 조준 점을 배치하는 데 문제가 있는 경우에는 사용하지 마십시오.
  • 3인칭 시점은 조준점(전차장 해치)의 시야가 높기 때문에 이 모드에서는 표적을 조준할 수 있다.
  • 자동 조준는 실제로 시야에 의존하지 않으므로 수동 조준에 실패하는 상황에서는 3인칭 시점에서 대상을 마우스 오른쪽 버튼으로 클릭하고 조준점을 조금 더 멀리둔다면, 어쩌면 충분히 맞힐 수도 있다.
  • 만약 이 모든 것이 실패한다면, 목표가 충분히 멀리 떨어져 있을 경우, 당신은 단순히 곡사를 목표로 하고, 사격을 시도 해볼수 있다. 그러나 완벽한 곡사를 맞추기 위해서는 많은 경험이 필요하다.

고도와 상관없이 표적에 시야가 확보되어 있고 샷을 할 수 있지만 표적의 붉은 윤곽을 볼 수 없는 상황도 있을 수 있다. 이것은 보통 다른 사물이 목표물보다 당신에게 더 가깝고 당신의 생각보다 겨냥하고 싶은 탱크 앞쪽 사물에 조준될때 일어난다. 여러분은 상관 없이 샷을 할 수 있지만, 만약 여러분의 조준원이 더 가까운 대상에 대한 목표를 수정하려고 한다면, 정조준하는 것은 까다로울 수 있다. 가까운 대상이 아군 탱크인 경우 상당히 조심해야 한다. 이러한 상황에서 많은 유저가 팀원들에 의해 실수로 등에 샷을 맞는다.

Strategic View (SPG)

Strategic Aiming Basics

If your vehicle is a self-propelled gun, then Sniper View is not available to you, instead you have an SPG-specific aiming mode called Strategic View available. It is accessed in the same way as Sniper View. It gives you a top down view onto a section of the battlefield. You can use your mouse or the cursor keys to move the view around. You can also place the Strategic View directly onto a certain battlefield area by holding Ctrl and right clicking the desired location on the minimap.

Unlike in the other view modes, in strategic mode the aiming circle does adjust to terrain elevation and ballistic trajectory. Thus it will usually not be a perfect circle but an oval shape. This helps you judge both the angle of the terrain your target is positioned on and your shell trajectory to the target. The little dot within the aiming circle/oval represents the height adjusted center of your aim.

It takes a little getting used to perfect aiming with self-propelled guns, see the illustration to the right for the basics to get you started.


Client vs Server

Shots that fall outside of your aim or go into a completely different direction are usually caused by network or server lag. This can happen because every movement of your aim on your client has to be transmitted to the server first and executed there as well. So regardless of your latency the server aim will always lag slightly behind your aiming on the client. If you press CapsLock + 0 during a battle, your client will show an additional blue reticle which shows the last information the client has received about where the server is currently placing your aim, as well as the size of the aiming circle on the server. Since this is subject to latency as well, it is not entirely accurate either, but if you are having latency related problems it can be a good idea to use the server reticle and wait until server and client reticles match before you fire a shot. The server reticle is not displayed while Automatic Aiming is engaged.


Where to aim

When shooting at an enemy tank, it is always useful to aim for areas with less armour. All tanks have the strongest armour in the front, with the rear being the weakest. In addition, a tank's armour is not uniform. Use the Penetration Indicator to discover weakly armoured spot, so called weak-spots (typically hatches, machine gun mounts, etc.).

Often it can also be helpful to inflict critical damage, e.g. by destroying the tank's tracks and thus immobilizing it, by shooting it's fuel tank to set it on fire, etc. Follow the links for more details.

Accuracy and Dispersion

{name}
Standard Deviation Diagram

Every shot you take is dispersed randomly around the center of your aiming reticle, i.e. you will not necessarily hit exactly where you aimed. The actual dispersion amount is based on a Gaussian (normal) distribution curve and depends on your gun and the turret it is mounted to.


Gun Accuracy

The accuracy value for a gun is given in meters at a range of 100m. The lower the value the more accurate your gun is. The value describes 2 standard deviations σ from the center of your aim. In other words, for a gun with 0.32m effective accuracy at 100m, 95.45% of all shots will land within 0.32m of the center of your aim at that distance. Dispersion amount increases linearly with distance, i.e. 0.32m effective accuracy at 100m translates to 0.64m at 200m and 1.28m at 400m


Aiming Circle

The aiming circle, also called dispersion circle, dispersion indicator or reticle, describes the area of 2 standard deviations σ from the aim point. Based on a purely normal distribution that would mean that 4.2% of your shots would fall outside of the aiming circle. They are moved to the edge of the circle, so they dont fall outside. However, there is a minor ammount of 0.2% of shots that lands outside the circle.


Accuracy Penalties

The accuracy discussed above applies is the best case scenario. During actual game play several factors can come into play that result in a penalty to your accuracy:

  • Dead Gunner: If your Gunner gets knocked out the Gunner's skill will be set to 0% for the purposes of calculating the accuracy stat. The effect is mitigated if the Commander has the Jack of All Trades skill. The effect is removed if the Gunner receives first aid via a consumable. See the Crew page for more information.
  • Gun Damage: A damaged ("yellow") gun typically fires with halved accuracy for as long as it remains damaged.
  • Shooting: With each shot you take your accuracy temporarily gets reduced dramatically depending on the vehicle type, but your Gunner will immediately start aiming again.
  • Turret Rotation: Rotating the turret results in a temporary accuracy penalty. The exact amount depends on the installed gun and the speed you rotate the turret at.
  • Vehicle Movement: Moving your vehicle forwards or backwards temporarily reduces accuracy. The exact amount depends on the installed suspension and the speed you are moving at.
  • Vehicle Rotation: Rotating your vehicle left or right temporarily reduces accuracy. The exact amount depends on the installed suspension and the speed you are rotating at.

With game version 0.7.2 several crew skills and perks have become available to reduce most of these penalties.


Aiming Time

The aiming time listed for each gun (in a specific turret) describes the time it takes for the aiming circle to shrink to a third of its size. However, most of the penalties described above increase the aiming circle by a factor bigger than three, which is why fully aiming the gun typically takes longer than the listed amount of time.

Client vs Server

When you fire a shot, your shell trajectory is first calculated based on the data the client has. It is later updated with the data confirmed by the server. If the difference was big, then you may see shell tracers leave your barrel at an angle or change flight path mid-trajectory.

It is unclear whether only the aiming point or also the dispersion of the trajectory around this center point is corrected based on server data. At least in v0.7.1, if you watch a replay, you can notice that each time you play it, your trajectory will be slightly different. This indicates that either dispersion is not synchronized between client and server, or that it is during a battle but that data is missing in the replay files. In any case, currently replays cannot be used to find out where your shot went exactly.

Penetration Mechanics

{name}

Aiming properly and hitting the enemy tank are only the means to an end, and that is actually damaging and eventually disabling it. And that is not automatic. Once you have hit an enemy vehicle, the game then calculates where the shot hit the enemy, at what angle you struck the armour, the effective thickness of the armour (based on the impact angle), and thus ultimately whether your shell penetrates the armour.


Impact Angle

The angle at which an Armour Piercing (AP), Armour Piercing Composite Rigid (APCR), High Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) or High Explosive (HE) shell hits the target's armour is crucial for penetrating it. The ideal impact angle is along the normal, i.e. perpendicular to the armour plate. The actual impact angle is calculated as the deviation from the normal. For this, the ballistic flight path of the shell is taken into account, which can be particularly important for artillery guns and their high arcing trajectories if you fire AP or HEAT shells with them.

If the shell hits an external module (e.g. tracks, observation device, turret rotator), impact angle is not taken into account. The exception to this rule is the gun.

Shell Normalization

The impact angle of AP and APCR shells onto a vehicles armour is normalized, i.e. adjusted towards the armour's normal axis at the point of impact.

In case of spaced armour, shells are normalized at the point of impact on the spaced armour, and if they penetrate, continue along their normalized flight path into the vehicle. Once it impacts the hull armour, normalization occurs again and the remaining penetration potential (i.e. the original penetration potential minus the effective armour thickness of the spaced armour) is used to calculate whether the shell penetrates the hull proper.

As of update 8.6, APCR shells are normalized at 2°. The normalization amount is a constant value depending on the shell; there is no randomization.

The impact angle of HEAT and HE shells is not normalized at all. Angle is used for armor line-of-sight thickness calculations, as normal.

Ricochet

If the initial impact angle (before normalization) of an AP or APCR shell on the target's armour exceeds 70° (85° for HEAT), a ricochet (a specific variant of a bounce) occurs regardless of its penetration value and the shell is deflected off the target without causing any damage. You may ricochet off of spaced armour as well, and even if you penetrate that your shell may still ricochet off the underlying hull armour.

As mentioned above, impact angle is not taken into account when hitting external modules except the gun, so a ricochet off those is impossible.

A ricochet off terrain features, buildings or wrecks is impossible.

Overmatch

If the AP or APCR shell's caliber is 2 times or more than the nominal thickness of the armour (Such as a 120mm shell hitting a 60mm thick plate), projectile shell normalization is increased by the following formula: basic normalization * 1.4 * shell caliber / nominal armour thickness. Note that the shell is still capable of bouncing if it strikes the armor at an angle of 70° or more from normal.

If the AP or APCR shell caliber is 3 times or more than the nominal thickness of the armour (such as a 120mm shell hitting a 40mm thick plate), no ricochet will happen even if the impact angle is more than 70° from normal. The increased shell normalization described above will also occur.

In cases involving HE shells or external module hits, overmatch does not occur.

Effective Armour Thickness

Your tank is armoured with plates of varying thicknesses. The game only provides you with the nominal armour strength of the three main armour plates of your tank's hull and turret, respectively. However, the tanks are actually modeled in much greater detail. The penetration indicator can help you discover the actual nominal armour thickness of your target.

However, the nominal thickness of an armour plate is just the minimal amount of armour a shell impacting it must penetrate. As soon as the impact angle deviates from the normal, i.e. is not perfectly perpendicular to the armour plate's surface, the effective armour thickness that the shell needs to penetrate will be higher than the nominal armour thickness:

Effective_armour_thickness.png

The effective armour thickness is calculated by dividing the nominal armour thickness with the cosine of the nominal impact angle. For example, in the diagram above we have a nominal armour thickness of 100mm and an impact angle of 30°, thus we have an effective armour thickness of 100mm/cos(30°) = 115.47mm that the shell needs to be able to penetrate. In other words, at an impact angle of 30° the armour is effectively 15.47% stronger than its nominal value.

The following table provides the coefficients for a number of normalized impact angles:

Impact AngleEffective Armour Thickness
100%
10°101.54%
20°106.42%
30°115.47%
40°130.54%
50°155.57%
60°200%
70°292.38%
> 70°Ricochet

As you can see, the effective armour thickness increases exponentially with the impact angle. For shells impacting you at 60° your armour is effectively twice as thick and at 70° nearly three times as thick. As explained above, for angles higher than 70° all AP and APCR shells will ricochet regardless of armour thickness.

As of 8.6, HEAT shells will start to ricochet if the impact angle equals or is greater than 80 degrees. The armor penetration after ricochet will remain the same.

The same applies to your targets, of course, so always take that into account when deciding if and where to shoot them. Reducing the impact angle to your target only slightly will exponentially reduce its effective armour thickness and a target that was previously impossible for you to penetrate may suddenly become easy prey. This is also the reason why you should always attack from two different angles at once. A target can only maximize their effective armour in one direction, as soon as they try to accommodate two possible impact angles they suffer an exponential loss in effective armour thickness towards both of them (thus if you are the one getting flanked while in a strongly armoured tank it is best to maximize your effective armour towards one opponent while shooting the other one).

Penetration Randomization

Penetration values displayed for a gun/shell combination are average values. The actual penetration value is randomized by up to +/- 25% around the average value. Randomization occurs on impact with the target, separately for each new shell you fire.

Penetration Loss over Distance

Since shell speed decreases the longer a shell flies, the game models linear penetration loss over distance depending on the gun and shell type used:

  • Armour Piercing (AP) shells experience low penetration loss over distance.
  • Armour Piercing Composite Rigid (APCR) shells generally experience high penetration loss over distance (the exception are the APCR shells used by tier 10 mediums)
  • High-Explosive (HE) and High-Explosive Anti-Tank shells (HEAT) shells experience no penetration loss at all.

The penetration values displayed in game indicate average penetration values at 0-100m distance (no penetration loss occurs within this range). Penetration values at higher distances are not displayed. As a rule of thumb, the higher the tier of the gun used, the lower the penetration loss over distance. For example, a Leichttraktor loses up to 17.5% penetration firing AP shells and 51.4% firing APCR shells with its default gun, whereas a Maus only loses about 2% with AP and 15.4% with APCR.

This Spreadsheet provides Maximum/minimum values for penetration and shell velocity; per gun per ammo type.

Double Penetration

A shell can continue its flight path after the initial impact, either on the outside of the tank in case of ricochet or inside of the tank following penetration of spaced armour, hull armour or external modules. A shell will continue flying for ten times its caliber (a 100mm shell will continue for 1 meter). The remaining penetration potential is the initial penetration value, randomized at the point of impact +/- 25%, minus whatever effective armour thickness that was penetrated. This remaining penetration potential is then used to calculate whether any other armour plates that are hit can be penetrated. Internal modules or crew members have no armour and thus will always get hit if any penetration potential is left in the shell.

Note that the penetration model is simplified and after initially impacting a vehicle a shell is "bound" to this vehicle and cannot hit any other tank anymore. That means that a shell can neither ricochet off a tank to hit another tank within its deflected flight path, nor can a shell pass through a tank to hit another tank behind it. A shell's flight path also ends after impacting the ground or buildings.

As of update 0.9.3, shells are no longer "bound" to the vehicle it bounced off from and will continue towards its new trajectory and may hit another vehicle.

Damage Mechanics

If your shell penetrates the enemy tank's armour, its journey is not over, the enemy tank does not automatically take damage. It all depends on the path of your shell after penetrating the armour and what parts of the enemy tank it hits on that path. A shell can indeed pass clean through a tank without causing any damage.


Shell Damage

Each shell has a specific damage potential. The game mechanics differentiate between armour damage and module and crew damage, but only the potential armour damage of a shell is actually displayed in game. The potential for module and crew damage exists in addition to the armour damage potential and is not shown in game.

The potential for module and crew damage is balanced individually for each shell - generally speaking low tier guns can cause more critical damage than armour damage, whereas the inverse is true for high tier guns. The reason is that low tier tanks have considerably more module hitpoints - another hidden property of your tank - than they have armour hitpoints. At high tiers the opposite is true.


Damage Randomization

Just like shell penetration, all shell damage is randomized by up to +/- 25%, regardless of shell type. The gun properties display the average value. The shell properties display the damage range. Note, however, that the shell values are rounded to the nearest integer, whereas the damage amounts shown in game are truncated. This is a display issue, and both are incorrect: The server uses the exact values.


Armour Damage

Each vehicle has hitpoints, displayed in the garage. Each vehicle enters the battle with 100% hitpoints because you must repair any damage taken by your vehicle in a previous battle before you are allowed to join the fight in it again. Each time the vehicle takes armour damage, its hitpoints get reduced. Once a vehicle's hitpoints reach zero, the vehicle is destroyed. During a battle, the remaining hitpoints of a vehicle are represented by the progress bars displayed over the targets you aim at.

Spaced armour is a special type of armour that exists to deflect a shell's flight path and to protect against the explosion blast from high-explosive (HE) shells. Spaced armour is special in that it is separate from the hull armour. Damage applied to spaced armour does not reduce the hitpoins of the vehicle itself.

AP, APCR and HEAT Shells

AP, APCR and HEAT shells cause damage only if they manage to penetrate the target's hull armour. Once the hull armour is penetrated the target will take the full listed damage, +/- 25%. Other factors play no role to the damage calculation. For example, it makes no difference whether you barely penetrated or easily penetrated the target.

HE Shells
High-Explosive shell damage model

The situation is more complex for HE shells because both penetrating and non-penetrating hits and even misses can cause damage.

If this type of shell penetrates the hull armour, the situation is identical to the one just described for the other types of shells, damage is done to the full listed potential, +/- 25%. Since the shell, as high-explosive ammunition, explodes inside of the vehicle after it passes through the armour, any internal modules or crew caught within the explosion radius risk taking damage/getting knocked out (see Module and Crew Damage below).

However, HE shells typically have low penetration values, so unless you aim carefully at a weakly armoured area of your target, you will not penetrate and the shell explodes on the outside of the target vehicle at the point of impact. This also applies if a HE shell penetrates spaced armour, which causes it to explode before hitting the hull armour. Finally, even if you miss the target, the shell will implode on impact and may still cause damage to the target if that lies within the explosion radius, which depends on the shell used. In all these cases where hull armour is not penetrated by the shell itself, the amount of damage is lower and calculated according to the following formula:

Equation_explosion-damage.png

SpallCoefficient may be 1.2, 1.25, 1.3, or 1.5 if a spall liner is installed and you calculate armour damage, otherwise 1 (i.e. a spall liner does not protect external modules). actualDamage results of zero or below mean you cause no damage.

ImpactDistance is the distance between the point of impact of the shell and the point of impact between the explosion's blast and the target along a straight, unobstructed line. Since the blast will cover an area of the target's surface, the game selects the spot that leads to maximum damage according to the above formula, i.e. it will be a trade-off between the spot with the lowest nominalArmorThickness and the closest spot that can be hit. Ideally your blast wave reaches an unarmoured area of your target, e.g. the open top and rear on certain tank destroyers or self-propelled guns.

Once the exact point of impact has been determined this way, the actual damage amount is determined as well as is the actual damage potential that the shell can now cause to the target. Whether this actual damage potential causes any damage to the vehicle follows the normal rules, but with the following limitation regarding internal modules and crew:

  • If the shell exploded on the vehicle itself, then the propagation of the blast wave into the tank is simulated by calculating a cone-shaped area 45° wide originating from the point of impact of the shell along the normalized impact vector. Damage to internal modules and crew is possible within this area.
  • If the shell exploded elsewhere and only the external blast wave impacted the vehicle, then no propagation of the blast into the vehicle itself takes place. Because of this no damage to internal modules and crew can occur.

If spaced armour is impacted by the blast wave first, the calculation above is conducted a second time for the underlying hull armour. Since this second calculation is based on the remaining reduced damage potential, its result is typically zero, i.e. no damage.


Module and Crew Damage

As mentioned above, you can not only damage a vehicle's armour, but also its modules and crew. Armour damage and module/crew damage are distinct. That means hitting a module only affects that module, not the hitpoints of the tank, just like hitting the armour does not affect a module. However, the same shell can damage both hull armour and module(s) or crew since it travels through the tank after penetrating the hull armour.

Damage States

Just like the vehicle's hull, also each of its modules and crew have hitpoints. During a battle, you only see a simplified display of the amount of hitpoints remaining on your modules and crew represented by one of three colour states in the damage panel at the bottom left of your screen. These states are:

  • Default (i.e. no colour shading): Enough hitpoints for module and crew to be fully operational.
  • Yellow: This state signifies that a module has taken considerable damage but is still operational. Tracks remain fully operational in this state, whereas every other module works at 50% efficiency. Crew members have no yellow state.
  • Red: This state signifies that a module is in-operational/a crew member is knocked out. Crew members remain in this state unless a consumable is used to restore them to full health, whereas modules will automatically be repaired over time by your crew up to the "Yellow" state of being operational.

All module and crew state changes are accompanied by a voice message.

Saving Throw

When a module or crew member is hit, they do not necessarily take damage from the hit. Instead, most modules have a specific chance not to take damage. This is also referred to as a saving throw. The base chances of damaging a specific module or crew member when hitting it are as follows:

  • Suspension: 100%
  • Engine: 45%
  • Fuel Tank: 45%
  • Observation Device: 45%
  • Radio: 45%
  • Turret Ring: 45%
  • Gun: 33%
  • Ammunition Rack: 27%

All crew members have the same chance to get knocked out when hit, however starting with game version 0.7.4 this chance depends on the damage type:

  • Crew hit by AP/APCR/HEAT shell: 33%
  • Crew hit by (internal) explosion: 10%

Each of these base chances to damage a module or knock out a crew member can be increased by 3% if the Deadeye perk is active for your Gunner at the time of a shot with an AP, APCR or HEAT shell.

No other factors influence these chances. The amount of ammunition you are carrying does not affect the chance of your ammunition rack taking damage.

Complete Crew Death

Note that as soon as all crew members are knocked out, the tank becomes inoperable. Consumables to restore a crew member's health cannot be applied anymore at this point, i.e. there is no way to restore the tank to operating condition. It counts as destroyed, even though its hull stays on the battlefield with all its remaining hitpoints.

Ammunition Rack Explosion

If the ammunition rack's hitpoints reach zero, it explodes, destroying the tank and its crew completely regardless of the remaining hitpoints on either of them. The only case the tank does not explode with a "red" ammo rack, is when the rack is empty.You can increase your ammo rack's hitpoints by installing "Wet" Ammo Rack equipment or by training the Safe Stowage perk on a crew member with the role of loader.

Fire Damage

There are two ways the enemy can set your tank on fire.

  • If your fuel tank's hitpoints reach zero, your tank automatically catches fire.
  • Each time your engine gets hit, there is a chance that your tank catches fire. This chance depends on the engine and is displayed on the engine module's properties in game or here on the wiki. Note that the transmission counts as part of the engine.

While your tank is on fire, it constantly takes both hull as well as module and crew damage. The exact damage rate depends on the tank but is not displayed in game. The duration of the fire also depends on the tank, on your crew's effective Firefighting skill level, and whether your Driver has the Preventative Maintenance perk active and whether you use Automatic Fire Extinguishers consumable. You can also extinguish a fire manually by using Manual Fire Extinguishers consumable.


Ramming Damage

You can also damage a target by ramming it. The collision creates an explosion at the point of impact similar to that of a high-explosive shell. The strength of the explosion, i.e. the damage potential, depends on the kinetic energy applied in the collision (0.5 * combined weight * relative speed^2), or in other words the combined weight of you and your target as well as your relative speed. That means that the heavier both you and your target are and the faster you collide, the stronger the explosion caused by the collision will be.

However, that damage potential is distributed according to the weight of each of the two colliding vehicles relative to their combined weight (1 - individual weight / combined weight). For example, if you weigh 75 tons and you ram a target weighing 25 tons, only 25% of the explosion will affect you.

Actual damage calculation then follows the same rules as for high-explosive shell explosions, thus ramming lightly armoured targets/areas of the target will cause more damage than strongly armoured parts. Damage taken can be reduced by having a Spall Liner equipped. You can further reduce damage taken and at the same time increase the damage inflicted to the target by having your vehicle's Driver trained in the Controlled Impact skill.

If you are about to be rammed, you can reduce the damage you will take by moving away from the approaching enemy, thus reducing your relative speed, and pointing your strongest armour at them. If your Driver has the Controlled Impact skill, you need to be moving to activate it, anyway.


Zero Damage Hits

Hits that cause no damage, also called zero damage hits, are notorious among the player base, and various conspiracy theories abound in their respect. However, in most cases they are simply the result of the above described game mechanics in conjunction with poor and sometimes incorrect visual and audible feedback given to the player about what happened with their shell. Bounces and ricochets, hits to spaced armour or to external modules are difficult to distinguish for the player, yet they all have a chance of not resulting in any visible armour damage to the enemy tank (they might still cause module or crew damage, but that is not always immediately visible to the attacking player and thus dismissed).

Everybody experiences zero damage hits, just like everybody experiences misses. However, a thorough understanding of the game mechanics described above will help you minimize them. There is randomization in the game, but you will always hit what you aim for, namely the area covered by your dispersion circle, so aim wisely to maximize the chances of your shots to damage your target.

Ghost Shells

Players also like to claim ghost shells, i.e. shells that either disappear straight out of the barrel or pass straight through a target as if it wasn't there.

The first type is typically due to the player missing the visual tracer effect - watching the battle's replay from a different angle will reveal it to you.

The second type can in rare cases be caused by heavy lag in the client/server connection that causes a synchronization loss - what you are seeing on the client is not actually what is happening on the server, and what's happening on the server is what counts. It may also be caused by a mistake in the collision model of the opponent's vehicle. The collision model is a simplified version of the visual model of the target vehicle, but separated into various hitboxes. If two hitboxes are not perfectly aligned, they may create a void between them that a shell can pass through if it flies through at just the right angle. Finally, for some vehicles there are parts of the visual vehicle model that are intentionally not reflected in the collision model and a shell can pass straight through them. This is often the case for elements fastened to a tank's external hull, e.g. boxes or fuel tanks. In many cases these are just decoration.

Repair

{name}

If you take module damage during battle, your crew will instantly start repairing it by restoring a specific amount of hitpoints to the module every second. The actual amount that gets repaired every second depends on the specific module itself (not just its type) and the effective repair skill of your crew.

Your crew will only repair a damaged module just enough to make it operational again, i.e. it will remain in "yellow" or damaged state. The exact amount of hitpoints this state represents depends on the specific module as well.

To get a module fully operational again and restore all of its hitpoints to it during battle you must use a consumable. The Small Repair Kit is bought for credits and allows you to repair one module during the battle (starting from patch 0.7.4 both tracks can be repaired at once if they are both damaged). The Large Repair Kit costs either gold, or, starting from patch 085, credits, and fully repairs all modules that are damaged at the time you use it. It will also provide a bonus of 10% to the crew's repair speed unless consumed.